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Karolien Van De Maele Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, KidZ Health Castle, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

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Jean De Schepper Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, KidZ Health Castle, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

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Jesse Vanbesien Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, KidZ Health Castle, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

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Monique Van Helvoirt Zeepreventorium, De Haan, Belgium

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Ann De Guchtenaere Zeepreventorium, De Haan, Belgium

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Inge Gies Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, KidZ Health Castle, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

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with corticosteroids, metformin and vitamin D supplementation. The studied outcomes combined anthropometric, densitometric and biochemical measurements. Following anthropometric measures were performed at baseline and at the end: body weight and

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Mengxue Yang Department of Endocrinology, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Department of Endocrinology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China

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Bowen Sun Department of Endocrinology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China

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Jianhui Li Department of Endocrinology, Ningbo No. 2 Hospital, Ningbo, China

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Bo Yang Department of Endocrinology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China

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Jie Xu School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China

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Xue Zhou Department of Endocrinology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China

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Jie Yu School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China

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Xuan Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China

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Qun Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Ningbo No. 2 Hospital, Ningbo, China

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Shan Zhou Department of Endocrinology, Ningbo No. 2 Hospital, Ningbo, China

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Xiaohua Sun Department of Endocrinology, Ningbo No. 2 Hospital, Ningbo, China

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antibiotics, probiotics or other medicine (such as metformin, acarbose or herbal preparations) and food that could possibly influence the intestinal flora; (4) the use of any anti-thyroid gland medicine before recruitment and (5) the existence of current

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Ling Zhou Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China

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Ruixue Zhang Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China

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Shuangyan Yang Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China

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Yaguang Zhang Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China

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Dandan Shi Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China

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Fu G Tu Y Zhang Y . Anti-diabetic activities of Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharide (ASP) in combination with metformin . International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2012 50 619 – 623 . ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j

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Ram P Narayanan Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Bo Fu Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Adrian H Heald Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Kirk W Siddals Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Robert L Oliver Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Julie E Hudson Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Antony Payton Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Simon G Anderson Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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Anne White Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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William E R Ollier Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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J Martin Gibson Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
Vascular Research Group, School of Community Based Medicine, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, Cardiovascular Research Group, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Salford R&D, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Faculty of Medical, Human and Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK

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.2 (0.3) 1.3 (0.4) Percentage of subjects on ACE inhibitors or ARBs 43.5 (in 2002) 67.8 (2002–2009) Percentage of subjects on anti-hypertensive medication 54 (in 2002) 79.6 (2002–2009) Percentage of subjects on metformin 58.5 (in 2002) 80.3 (2002

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Fabian Eichelmann Department of Epidemiology, Nutrition, Immunity and Metabolism Start-up Lab, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany

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Cornelia Weikert Department of Food Safety, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany

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Romina di Giuseppe Institute of Epidemiology, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany

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Ronald Biemann Department for Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany

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Berend Isermann Department for Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany

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Matthias B Schulze Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany
German Center of Diabetes Research (DZD), München-Neuherberg, Germany

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Heiner Boeing Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany

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Krasimira Aleksandrova Department of Epidemiology, Nutrition, Immunity and Metabolism Start-up Lab, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany

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Heutling D Lewandowski KC O’Hare JP Lehnert H Randeva HS. Insulin and metformin regulate circulating and adipose tissue chemerin . Diabetes 2009 58 1971 – 1977 . ( doi:10.2337/db08-1528 ) 13 Li Y Shi B Li S

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Magdalene K Montgomery Department of Pharmacology, UNSW Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia

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Nigel Turner Department of Pharmacology, UNSW Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia

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) . Interestingly, this counter-intuitive pattern of mild inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism has been reported in other insulin-sensitising medicinal plants (136) and is also a characteristic of metformin and thiazolidinediones, which are frontline

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Merlin C Thomas Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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Brendon L Neuen The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Stephen M Twigg The University of Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Mark E Cooper Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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Sunil V Badve The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Department of Renal Medicine, St George Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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findings strongly support the recent recommendations that SGLT2 inhibitors should be considered as first-line therapy, alongside metformin, for the management of all people with T2D with or at high risk of developing CKD ( 15 ). Moreover, because of how

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Xiaoli Liu Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China

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Lanxiang Liu Department of Medical Imaging, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China

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Rui Wang Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China

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Xiaojiao Jia Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China

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Binbin Liu Department of Functional Examination, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China

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Ning Ma Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China

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Qiang Lu Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China

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-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention or metformin for diabetes prevention. An intent-to-treat analysis of the DPP/DPPOS . Diabetes Care 2012 35 723 – 730 . ( https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-1468 ) 29 Siu AL US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening

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Hong Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Jie Cao Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Jian-bin Su Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Xue-qin Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Dong-mei Zhang Medical Research Center, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University, and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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Xiao-hua Wang Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital 2 of Nantong University and First People’s Hospital of Nantong City, Nantong, China

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.001  Insulin treatments, n (%) 869 (53.9) 226 (55.8) 227 (56.6) 206 (51.1) 210 (52.1) 0.314  Insulin-secretagogues, n (%) 857 (53.2) 227 (56.0) 203 (50.6) 204 (50.6) 223 (55.3) 0.240  Metformin, n (%) 933 (57.9) 227

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Shenglong Le Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Leiting Xu Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

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Moritz Schumann Department of Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
The Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, and Exercise Translational Medicine Center, Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Na Wu Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Timo Törmäkangas Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

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Markku Alén Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland

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Sulin Cheng Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
The Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, and Exercise Translational Medicine Center, Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Petri Wiklund Exercise, Health and Technology Centre, Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Dunger DB de Zegher F . Metformin therapy during puberty delays menarche, prolongs pubertal growth, and augments adult height: A randomized study in low-birth-weight girls with early-normal onset of puberty . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and

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