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Melissa Braga, Zena Simmons, Keith C Norris, Monica G Ferrini and Jorge N Artaza

Introduction Vitamin D is universally recognized for its classical effects on calcium regulation and phosphate homeostasis, in relation to bone development and maintenance ( 1 , 2 ). However, vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to the

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Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Velhuis and Chen Chen

important role for GH for maternal adaptations to pregnancy and placental development is conserved across multiple species. The timing of increased basal secretion from mid-pregnancy suggests regulation of pituitary secretion by a placenta-derived factor

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María L Bacigalupo, Verónica G Piazza, Nadia S Cicconi, Pablo Carabias, Andrzej Bartke, Yimin Fang, Ana I Sotelo, Gabriel A Rabinovich, María F Troncoso and Johanna G Miquet

somatotropic axis have been implicated in the development of liver tumors in rodents. While GH-deficient mice are resistant to the development of carcinogen-induced liver tumors ( 10 ), transgenic mice overexpressing GH spontaneously develop hepatocellular

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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno and Hiroshi Wachi

cells were obtained from the Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan). The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 (Wako Pure Chemical Industries) supplemented with 10% fetal

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Borros Arneth

pathogenesis or whether their appearance represents a major step in disease development, and this topic remains controversial in the extant literature ( 15 , 16 ). In addition, the presence of autoantibodies could indicate a non-specific, bystander autoimmune

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Xinlei Chen, Liru Hu, Caojie Liu, Guangcheng Ni and Yuwei Zhang

Owing to the development of imaging techniques and improved patient awareness, there is an increasing tendency toward incidentally discovered PPGL. Considering that no statistically significant differences were found in hormonal secretion and malignancy

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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík and Jirˇí Pácha

determine (i) whether social stress influences the local metabolism of glucocorticoids in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, i.e. in the structures where immune cells undergo development and activation and (ii) whether there is any strain predisposition

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Ling Zhou, Zhexin Ni, Wen Cheng, Jin Yu, Shuai Sun, Dongxia Zhai, Chaoqin Yu and Zailong Cai

IR, promoting the development of PCOS ( 2 ). The interrelation between gut microbiota and PCOS is attracting increased attention. Compared with healthy women, Lindheim et al . ( 3 ) found that the abundance of ML615J-28 and 124-7 from phylum

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Agnieszka Kosowska, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Wojciech Garczorz, Agnieszka Kłych-Ratuszny, Mohammad Reza F Aghdam, Michał Woz´niak, Andrzej Witek, Agnieszka Wróblewska-Czech, Anna Cygal, Jerzy Wojnar and Tomasz Francuz

.113 ) 10.1038/modpathol.2014.113 9 Lengyel E . Ovarian cancer development and metastasis . American Journal of Pathology 2010 177 1053 – 1064 . ( doi:10.2353/ajpath.2010.100105 ) 10.2353/ajpath.2010.100105 10 Weidle UH Birzele F

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Satoshi Inoue, Taichi Mizushima, Hiroki Ide, Guiyang Jiang, Takuro Goto, Yujiro Nagata, George J Netto and Hiroshi Miyamoto

treatment such as radical cystectomy with neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy. Accordingly, identifying key molecules/pathways responsible for the development and/or growth of urothelial tumor may offer novel targeted therapy that improves patient outcomes