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Greta B Raglan, Louis A Schmidt, and Jay Schulkin

Introduction Stress reactions are by no means universal, and the activation of ‘stress hormones’, such as glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), is not necessarily the mark of a stress response ( 1 ). Some individuals have

Open access

Brijesh Krishnappa, Ravikumar Shah, Saba Samad Memon, Chakra Diwaker, Anurag R Lila, Virendra A Patil, Nalini S Shah, and Tushar R Bandgar

therapies ( 1 ). The remaining treatment options include observation or glucocorticoid therapy and each of them can be used as the primary treatment based on clinical scenario. A recent meta-analysis concluded that patients with milder presentation be

Open access

Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, and Peter Lommer Kristensen

Introduction In patients with malignant disease, glucocorticoids are widely used on various indications. High-dose treatment is given as part of chemotherapy regimens and for treating oedema associated with metastatic spinal cord compression

Open access

Legh Wilkinson, Nicolette J D Verhoog, and Ann Louw

pathway of the stress response ( 1 ). This in turn, has many peripheral effects, such as an increase in circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) ( 2 , 3 ). Chronic stress or prolonged exogenous GC treatment also disrupts the central homeostatic nature of GC

Open access

Kathrin Zopf, Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Manfred Ventz, Britta Bauer, and Marcus Quinkler

Introduction Polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) may influence the sensitivity to glucocorticoids by altering the GR expression (e.g. reducing transcription) and influencing transactivation and transrepression of target genes

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Wiebke Arlt and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

Introduction Acute adrenal insufficiency , also termed adrenal crisis , is a life-threatening endocrine emergency brought about by a lack of production of the adrenal hormone cortisol, the major glucocorticoid. Identifying patients at risk

Open access

Trevor Lewis, Eva Zeisig, and Jamie E Gaida

and associated metabolic conditions, such as insulin resistance ( 5 ), diabetes ( 6 ), hypercholesterolaemia ( 7 ), statins ( 8 ), abdominal fat ( 9 ), the sympathetic nervous system ( 10 , 11 ), and corticosteroid use ( 12 ). Glucocorticoids are a

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Ditte Sofie Dahl Sørensen, Jesper Krogh, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, and Mikkel Andreassen

profiles in adult patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency have shown a substantial circadian rhythm highly influenced by glucocorticoid replacement ( 6 ). Most recent clinical guideline from the US Endocrine Society suggests levels of androstenedione and 17

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Siphiwe N Dlamini, Zané Lombard, Lisa K Micklesfield, Nigel Crowther, Shane A Norris, Tracy Snyman, Andrew A Crawford, Brian R Walker, and Julia H Goedecke

components, and related cardiometabolic risk factors, including measures of obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). Cortisol may not be the only glucocorticoid involved in metabolic syndrome as humans also produce

Open access

Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík, and Jirˇí Pácha

the sympathetic–adrenal–medullary axis, which subsequently release glucocorticoids and catecholamines, respectively. The HPA and SNS axes are the two major pathways through which stress is able to modulate immune functions depending on the nature