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Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou, and Mark S Cooper

Background Acute inflammation is typically associated with an activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in an increase in the level of glucocorticoids within the circulation ( 1 ). In situations where this

Open access

Filippo Ceccato, Elisa Selmin, Giorgia Antonelli, Mattia Barbot, Andrea Daniele, Marco Boscaro, Mario Plebani, and Carla Scaroni

only confirm central AI in patients with very low morning basal serum F levels (≤83 nmol/L, 3 µg/dL), whereas only high serum F levels (≥415 nmol/L) can confirm a normal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( 2 ). A confirmatory dynamic test is

Open access

Lisa Arnetz, Neda Rajamand Ekberg, Kerstin Brismar, and Michael Alvarsson

–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, studies have shown discrepant results, reporting both increased and decreased activation (2) . Cortisol has effects opposite to those of insulin on glucose metabolism, decreasing glucose uptake and increasing gluconeogenesis (1, 2, 3

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Michelle Romijn, Bibian van der Voorn, Marita de Waard, Michaela F Hartmann, Johannes B van Goudoever, Stefan A Wudy, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

) handicaps and had lower scores on tests of neurodevelopment than their female counterparts ( 5 , 6 ). Integrity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is crucial during critical illnesses. Among preterm infants, the HPA axis seems to be

Open access

Eva Novoa, Marcel Gärtner, and Christoph Henzen

route of administration, the varied systemic side effects of oral or intravenous glucocorticoids should be minimized, in particular the suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis or the inhibition of osteoblast function. Even after

Open access

Kunzhe Lin, Lingling Lu, Zhijie Pei, Shuwen Mu, Shaokuan Huang, and Shousen Wang

postoperatively. Preoperative routine examination of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis functions was performed to determine the low function and the need for oral glucocorticoid and thyroxine replacement

Open access

Carla Scaroni, Nora M Albiger, Serena Palmieri, Davide Iacuaniello, Chiara Graziadio, Luca Damiani, Marialuisa Zilio, Antonio Stigliano, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello, and the Altogether to Beat Cushing’s Syndrome (ABC) study group

Introduction Physiological activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be found in several situations, such as major surgery, severe illness, intensive physical exercise, and prolonged fasting leading to improve the ability

Open access

Morten Winkler Møller, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Christian Bonde Pedersen, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, and Frantz Rom Poulsen

–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis (s-ACTH, s-cortisol and Synacthen test). Deficiency in either axis was defined as biochemical data outside reference values for the specific hormone or if patients were already on substitution therapy. Intact function was defined as hormone

Open access

Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

also in protection against it. The hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal axis in the brain and addiction In relation to addiction, far more attention has been paid to hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) components in the brain than to the systemic (i.e. blood

Open access

Amit Kumar, Maria Ghosh, and Jubbin Jagan Jacob

diagnosis. Evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is, however, missed in over two-thirds of the patients labeled as having SIAD ( 14 ). Clear estimates of the contribution of secondary AI to EuVHNa are hard to come by. We could locate