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Muriel Houang Laboratoire des Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Thao Nguyen-Khoa Centre Régional de Dépistage Néonatal-Ile de France, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP Centre Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Thibaut Eguether Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Département de Métabolomique Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Bettina Ribault Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Département de Métabolomique Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Séverine Brabant Laboratoire d’Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP Centre Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Michel Polak Centre Régional de Dépistage Néonatal-Ile de France, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP Centre Université de Paris, Paris, France
Université de Paris, INSERM, Institut IMAGINE, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris, France

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Irène Netchine Laboratoire des Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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Antonin Lamazière Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
Département de Métabolomique Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris, France

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D Banerji D . The effects of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate on short-term bone growth and HPA axis in children with allergic rhinitis . Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2003 90 56 – 62 . ( https

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N Bergmann Endocrine Unit, The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine O, Herlev University Hospital, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark

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F Gyntelberg Endocrine Unit, The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine O, Herlev University Hospital, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark

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J Faber Endocrine Unit, The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine O, Herlev University Hospital, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark
Endocrine Unit, The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine O, Herlev University Hospital, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark

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-response is then initiated with activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic–adrenomedullar (SAM) axis (3) . The activation of the two axes takes place in order to maintain the dynamic balance of the body, homeostasis, and

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Maximilian Bielohuby Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, R&D, Industriepark Höchst, Frankfurt, Germany

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Martin Bidlingmaier Endocrine Research Laboratories, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany

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Uwe Schwahn Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, R&D, Industriepark Höchst, Frankfurt, Germany

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rodent studies and data are usually only reported for individual hormones. Among the reported hormones, particular attention has been given to hormones belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as to adrenal medullary hormones

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Legh Wilkinson Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

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Nicolette J D Verhoog Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

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Ann Louw Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

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Introduction Due to the interrelatedness of the stress and inflammatory responses, chronic persistent inflammation may be considered both a cause and a consequence of a prolonged disruption of the central HPA axis, a systemic signalling

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Efstratios Kardalas Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Stavroula A Paschou Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, ‘Aghia Sophia’ Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Panagiotis Anagnostis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Giovanna Muscogiuri Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, ‘Federico II’ University of Naples, Naples, Italy

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Gerasimos Siasos First Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Andromachi Vryonidou Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece

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hyperactivity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( 49 ). Due to elevated ACTH, patients suffer from an overproduction of mineralocorticoids, leading to hypertension, hypokalemic alkalosis and fatigue. Females also show signs of hyperandrogenism

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Sirazum Choudhury Endocrinology and Investigative Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, Commonwealth Building, London, UK
Department of Endocrinology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK

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Tricia Tan Endocrinology and Investigative Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, Commonwealth Building, London, UK
Department of Endocrinology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK

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Katharine Lazarus Endocrinology and Investigative Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, Commonwealth Building, London, UK
Department of Endocrinology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK

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Karim Meeran Endocrinology and Investigative Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, Commonwealth Building, London, UK
Department of Endocrinology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK

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-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the influence of the master clock is exerted by canonical endocrine signalling via arginine vasopressin (AVP) modification of pulsatile ACTH secretion, but there also exist non-endocrine pathways with neural signalling via the splanchnic

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Andrew R Dismukes Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
Tulane University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

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Vanessa J Meyer Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
Tulane University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

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Elizabeth A Shirtcliff Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

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Katherine P Theall Tulane University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

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Kyle C Esteves Tulane University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

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Stacy S Drury Tulane University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA

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patterns of allostasis? An examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length . Physiology & Behavior 2012 106 40 – 45 . ( doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.11.016 ) 25 Kalimi M Shafagoj Y Loria R Padgett D

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Andrea V Haas Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Paul N Hopkins Cardiovascular Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

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Nancy J Brown Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

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Luminita H Pojoga Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Jonathan S Williams Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Gail K Adler Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Gordon H Williams Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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used various cortisol measurement techniques (morning plasma, salivary, post-dexamethasone suppression, 24-h urine) that assess distinct aspects of the hypothalamic–pituitary–axis. An emerging new technique that may also be of use is measurement of hair

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Mardia López-Alarcón Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Jessie N Zurita-Cruz Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Alonso Torres-Rodríguez Escuela Española de Desarrollo Transpersonal, Madrid, España

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Karla Bedia-Mejía Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Manuel Pérez-Güemez Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Leonel Jaramillo-Villanueva Departamento de Psiquiatría, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Mario E Rendón-Macías Universidad Panamericana, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de Medicina, México, Mexico

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Jose R Fernández Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

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Patricia Martínez-Maroñas Escuela Española de Desarrollo Transpersonal, Madrid, España

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children . Epidemiology of Obesity in Children and Adolescents 2011 455 – 482 . 5 Rutters F La Fleur S Lemmens S Born J Martens M Adam T . The hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal axis, obesity, and chronic stress exposure: foods and HPA axis

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Lukas Engler Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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Christian Adolf Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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Daniel A Heinrich Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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Anna-Katharine Brem Max-Planck-Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
Division of Interventional Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Anna Riester Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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Anna Franke Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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Felix Beuschlein Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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Martin Reincke Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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Axel Steiger Max-Planck-Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany

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Heike Künzel Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munchen, Germany

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disease and psychological depression . Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2006 57 ( Supplement 11 ) 5 – 29 . 14 Keller J Gomez R Williams G Lembke A Lazzeroni L Murphy GM Jr Schatzberg AF . HPA axis in major depression: cortisol

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