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Magdalena Lech Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, School of Life Course Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK

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Ruvini Ranasinghe Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK

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Royce P Vincent Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK
Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, School of Life Course Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK

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David R Taylor Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK

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Lea Ghataore Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK

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James Luxton Department of Clinical Biochemistry, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK

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Fannie Lajeunesse-Trempe Department of Endocrinology ASO/EASO COM, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK
Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec, Canada

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Pia Roser Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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Eftychia E Drakou Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy's Cancer Centre - Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Great Maze Pond, London, UK

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Ling Ling Chuah Department of Endocrinology ASO/EASO COM, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK

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Ashley B Grossman Green Templeton College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Barts and the London School of Medicine, Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Institute, London, UK
Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK

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Simon J B Aylwin Department of Endocrinology ASO/EASO COM, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK

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Georgios K Dimitriadis Department of Endocrinology ASO/EASO COM, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London, UK
Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Immunometabolism Research Group, School of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine & Sciences, Faculty of Life Course Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK
Division of Reproductive Health, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

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no clinical utility when evaluating hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis capacity in patients on mitotane ( 13 ). The relationship between cortisol and CBGs was assessed in patients on mitotane therapy; the rank revealed a negative correlation

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Annelies van’t Westeinde Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Division of Pediatrics, Unit for Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Leif Karlsson Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Division of Pediatrics, Unit for Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Valeria Messina Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Division of Pediatrics, Unit for Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Lena Wallensteen Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Division of Pediatrics, Unit for Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Manuela Brösamle European Patient Advocacy Group for Adrenal Diseases, European Reference Network on Rare Endocrine Conditions (Endo ERN), Endo ERN Coordinating Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Giorgio Dal Maso ArfSAG (Associazione Refionale Famiglie Sindrome Adreno Genitale) c/o Unita Operativa di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsala-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy

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Alessandro Lazzerini Spanish Association of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), Spain

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Jette Kristensen ePAG & Chair of Danish Addison Patient Association, Aarhus, Denmark

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Diana Kwast Dutch Adrenal Society NVACP, Nijkerk, The Netherlands

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Lea Tschaidse Department of Endocrinology, Medizinische Klinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany

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Matthias K Auer Department of Endocrinology, Medizinische Klinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany

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Hanna F Nowotny Department of Endocrinology, Medizinische Klinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany

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Luca Persani Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Nicole Reisch Department of Endocrinology, Medizinische Klinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany

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Svetlana Lajic Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet and Division of Pediatrics, Unit for Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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negative feedback on the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the over-production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The excess ACTH is shunted towards the androgen production pathways in the adrenal cortex and thus leads to an

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Brijesh Krishnappa Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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Ravikumar Shah Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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Saba Samad Memon Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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Chakra Diwaker Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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Anurag R Lila Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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Virendra A Patil Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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Nalini S Shah Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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Tushar R Bandgar Department of Endocrinology, K E M Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai, India

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the underlying inflammatory pathology per se or could be due to suppression of the HPA axis by supraphysiological dose of exogenous glucocorticoids. It is difficult to differentiate between the two; however, radiological evaluation with MRI may

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Tatiana V Novoselova Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Peter J King Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Leonardo Guasti Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Louise A Metherell Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Adrian J L Clark Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Li F Chan Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dictates the production of glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal gland. Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

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Fernando Aprile-Garcia Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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María Antunica-Noguerol Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Maia Ludmila Budziñski Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Ana C Liberman Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Eduardo Arzt Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Departamento de Fisiología, Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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inflammatory response is the local release of a number of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines (interleukin 1 (IL1), IL6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)), which then act in the CNS activating the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, the main

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L Johnsen Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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N B Lyckegaard Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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P Khanal Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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B Quistorff Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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K Raun Diabetes and Obesity Pharmacology, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark

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M O Nielsen Department of Large Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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affecting neurons of the HPA axis, which in turn can trigger pituitary TSH stimulation ( 48 , 49 ). The same mechanisms may be at play in both NORM:HCHF sheep and HIGH:CONV sheep. The adult sheep in our study could not be characterized as obese, but had a

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Alberto Giacinto Ambrogio Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Massimiliano Andrioli Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Martina De Martin Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Francesco Cavagnini Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy

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Francesca Pecori Giraldi Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

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and OST were indicative of normal HPA axis function at the time the response to desmopressin changed and became clearly altered only months to years after this first response ( Table 2 ). Figure 3 ACTH response to desmopressin at long

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Siphiwe N Dlamini SAMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit (DPHRU), School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa

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Zané Lombard Division of Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service, and School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Lisa K Micklesfield SAMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit (DPHRU), School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Nigel Crowther Department of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Shane A Norris SAMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit (DPHRU), School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Tracy Snyman Department of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Andrew A Crawford Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

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Brian R Walker BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Institute of Genetic Medicine to Translational & Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Julia H Goedecke SAMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit (DPHRU), School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa

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that included both African men and women suggested more evidence of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in African males compared to their European ancestry counterparts, and the HPA axis dysregulation was associated with an

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Trevor Lewis Physiotherapy Department, Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK

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Eva Zeisig Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå Univerisity, Umeå, Sweden

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Jamie E Gaida University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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class of steroid hormones present in almost every cell of the body and are essential for survival ( 13 ). Glucocorticoid release is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus releases

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Paul-Martin Holterhus Department of Pediatrics I, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel and Christian Albrechts University, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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Alexandra Kulle Department of Pediatrics I, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel and Christian Albrechts University, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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Anne-Marie Till Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, UKSH, Campus Lübeck, Germany

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Caroline Stille Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, UKSH, Campus Lübeck, Germany

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Tabea Lamprecht Department of Pediatrics I, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel and Christian Albrechts University, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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Simon Vieth Department of Pediatrics I, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, UKSH, Campus Kiel and Christian-Albrechts-University, CAU, Kiel, Germany

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Melchior Lauten Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, UKSH, Campus Lübeck, Germany

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AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 . Blood 2016 127 2101 – 2112 . ( https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-09-670729 ) 3 Rensen N Gemke RJ van Dalen EC Rotteveel J & Kaspers GJ . Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression after treatment with

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