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Patricia Arroyo Tardio University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland

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Gabriela Baldini University Clinic of Medicine, Cantonal Hospital Baselland, Liestal, Switzerland

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Eleonora Seelig University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
University Clinic of Medicine, Cantonal Hospital Baselland, Liestal, Switzerland

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Introduction The hypothalamopituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis tightly regulates cortisol secretion ( 1 ). Cortisol is secreted in a circadian rhythm with a brisk increase upon awakening and a nadir around midnight ( 1 ). Food is an external factor

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Masatada Watanabe Laboratory of Tissue Regeneration, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan

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Shuji Ohno Division of Research for Pharmacy Students Education, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan

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Hiroshi Wachi Laboratory of Tissue Regeneration, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan

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healthy subjects ( 18 ). An increase in salivary cortisol concentration reflects the response of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) to stress, whereas an increase in plasma catecholamine concentration reflects the response of the (hypothalamus

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Karim Gariani Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Hypertension and Nutrition, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland

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Pedro Marques-Vidal Departments of Medicine and Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Gérard Waeber Departments of Medicine and Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Peter Vollenweider Departments of Medicine and Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

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François R Jornayvaz Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Hypertension and Nutrition, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland

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Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis may involve the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) ( 1 ). Common features observed in T2DM and metabolic syndrome, such as elevated fasting glucose, obesity, hyperlipidemia or

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Katica Bajuk Studen Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Simona Gaberšček Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Edvard Pirnat Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Nataša Bedernjak Bajuk Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Andreja Vendramin Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Vito Majcen Department of Nuclear Medicine, SB Celje, Celje, Slovenia

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Katja Zaletel Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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several weeks is recommended; however, as the dose of CS is reduced, the symptoms can recur ( 1 ). Although it is generally accepted that low doses of CS do not suppress the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, it has been reported that adrenal

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Britt J van Keulen Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Pediatric Endocrinology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Conor V Dolan Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Bibian van der Voorn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Sophia Kinderziekenhuis, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Ruth Andrew Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK

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Brian R Walker Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Hilleke Hulshoff Pol Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Dorret I Boomsma Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Joost Rotteveel Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Pediatric Endocrinology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Martijn J J Finken Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Pediatric Endocrinology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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infectious diseases and are more likely to engage in violent competition ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Moreover, males and females differ in cardiovascular disease susceptibility ( 4 ). Sex differences in HPA-axis settings have been hypothesized to play a role in these

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Huifei Sophia Zheng Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Jeffrey G Daniel Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Julia M Salamat Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Laci Mackay Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Chad D Foradori Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Robert J Kemppainen Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Satyanarayana R Pondugula Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Ya-Xiong Tao Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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Chen-Che Jeff Huang Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

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negative feedback from the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( 2 ). Although GCs have non-genomic actions, they may still rapidly affect gene expression via different mechanisms such as mRNA destabilization and coactivator competition ( 3 , 4

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Deirdre Green Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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Rosemary Dineen Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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Michael W O’Reilly Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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Mark Sherlock Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin

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–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, with insufficient adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation of the adrenal cortex ( 2 ) leading to deficiency in cortisol and adrenal androgens. This is mostly commonly caused by pituitary tumours and the resultant treatment including

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Ferdinand Roelfsema Department of Internal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Diana van Heemst Department of Internal Medicine, Section Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Ali Iranmanesh Endocrine Section, Medical Service, Salem Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salem, Virginia, USA

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Paul Takahashi Primary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Rebecca Yang Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Medical and Graduate Schools, Clinical Translational Research Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Johannes D Veldhuis Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Medical and Graduate Schools, Clinical Translational Research Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Introduction The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the most important neuroendocrine stress-responsive system, which is of critical importance for survival in mammals ( 1 ). Tightly controlled regulation of the HPA axis is crucial

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Martijn J J Finken Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Aleid J G Wirix Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Ines A von Rosenstiel-Jadoul Department of Pediatrics, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands

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Bibian van der Voorn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Obesity Center CGG, Erasmus MC Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Mai J M Chinapaw Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Michaela F Hartmann Steroid Research and Mass Spectrometry Unit, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

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Joana E Kist-van Holthe Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Stefan A Wudy Steroid Research and Mass Spectrometry Unit, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

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Joost Rotteveel Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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effects on body fat disposition and vascular reactivity. Indeed, childhood obesity has been associated with alterations in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, including increased cortisol production and flattening of early-morning peak

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Ruth Percik Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Sheba Medical Centre, Ramat Gan, Israel

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Sherwin Criseno Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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Safwaan Adam Department of Endocrinology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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Kate Young Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK

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Daniel L Morganstein Department of Endocrinology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK

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. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis Hypophysitis and hypopituitarism Pituitary abnormalities are reported in between 1.8 and 18.3% of patients treated with ipilimumab-based regimens ( 17 ), usually resulting in panhypopituitarism, associated with

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