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Amit Kumar Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

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Maria Ghosh Department of Biochemistry, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

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Jubbin Jagan Jacob Department of Endocrinology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

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diagnosis. Evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is, however, missed in over two-thirds of the patients labeled as having SIAD ( 14 ). Clear estimates of the contribution of secondary AI to EuVHNa are hard to come by. We could locate

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Hershel Raff Division of Endocrinology, Division of Nephrology, Endocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine
Division of Endocrinology, Division of Nephrology, Endocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine
Division of Endocrinology, Division of Nephrology, Endocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine
Division of Endocrinology, Division of Nephrology, Endocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine

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Hariprasad Trivedi Division of Endocrinology, Division of Nephrology, Endocrine Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine

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Introduction The measurement of salivary cortisol has emerged as a first-line test in the evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in humans and, in particular, for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing

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Peter Ergang Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

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Anna Mikulecká Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

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Martin Vodicˇka Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

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Karla Vagnerová Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

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Ivan Mikšík Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

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Jirˇí Pácha Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

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Introduction Stress is a ubiquitous condition that affects both people and animals. It initiates a series of events, culminating in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), including

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I Azzam Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel

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S Gilad Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel

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R Limor Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel

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N Stern Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Y Greenman Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

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Giovanni Fanni Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Petros Katsogiannos Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Bipasha Nandi Jui Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Magnus Sundbom Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Susanne Hetty Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Maria J Pereira Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Jan W Eriksson Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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hoc analyses of multiple hormones in patients with obesity and T2DM followed up for 2 years after RYGB. We highlight the novel findings on the responses of GH and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis to oral glucose following RYGB. For the

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Fahim Ebrahimi Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Department of Clinical Research, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

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Sandrine A Urwyler Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Department of Clinical Research, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

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Philipp Schuetz Department of Clinical Research, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Department of Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland

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Beat Mueller Department of Clinical Research, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Department of Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland

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Luca Bernasconi Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland

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Peter Neyer Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland

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Marc Y Donath Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Department of Clinical Research, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

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Mirjam Christ-Crain Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Department of Clinical Research, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland

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leads to an increased activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis with excess of glucocorticoids which are known to increase the risk for metabolic complications and cardiovascular mortality ( 6 ). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to

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Jonneke J Hollanders Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Bibian van der Voorn Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Noera Kieviet Department of Pediatrics, Psychiatry Obstetrics Pediatrics Expert Center, OLVG West, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Koert M Dolman Department of Pediatrics, Psychiatry Obstetrics Pediatrics Expert Center, OLVG West, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Yolanda B de Rijke Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Erica L T van den Akker Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus MC Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Joost Rotteveel Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Adriaan Honig Department of Pediatrics, Psychiatry Obstetrics Pediatrics Expert Center, OLVG West, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Martijn J J Finken Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which are protective in the short term, but might pose a risk in the long term ( 3 ). The development of the fetal HPA axis is, among other factors, influenced by the placental transfer of maternal GCs

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Ferdinand Roelfsema Department of Internal Medicine, Section Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Peter Y Liu Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA

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Rebecca Yang Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Center for Translational Science Activities, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Paul Takahashi Primary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Johannes D Veldhuis Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Center for Translational Science Activities, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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deficit. This focus complements the earlier study of IL-2’s suppressive effect on the gonadotropic axis in the same cohort of volunteers ( 6 ). Aging is also associated with increased systemic inflammation ( 7 ) and regulation of the HPA axis is age

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S U Jayasinghe
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S J Torres
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C A Nowson
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A J Tilbrook Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, Livestock and Farming Systems, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Melbourne, Victoria 3125, Australia

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A I Turner
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independent of the salivary flow rate (11) and that its response to Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is predictive of the plasma catecholamine response to TSST (13) . Activation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis by stress results in the

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Ida Staby Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jesper Krogh Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Marianne Klose Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jonas Baekdal Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Clinical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lars Poulsgaard Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jacob Bertram Springborg Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Mikkel Andreassen Department of Medical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Clinical Sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Sheridan B Atkinson AB . Comparison of one week 0900 h serum cortisol, low and standard dose synacthen tests with a 4 to 6 week insulin hypoglycaemia test after pituitary surgery in assessing HPA axis . Clinical Endocrinology 2000 53 431 – 436

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