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Julia Kubiak Tromsø Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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Per Medbøe Thorsby Department of Medical Biochemistry, Per Medbøe Thorsby, Hormone Laboratory, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Norway

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Elena Kamycheva Tromsø Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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Rolf Jorde Tromsø Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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Objective

Low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some of its risk factors. However, in interventional studies, the effects of vitamin D supplementation have been uncertain, possibly due to inclusion of vitamin D-sufficient subjects. Our aim was therefore to examine effects of vitamin D supplementation on CVD risk factors in vitamin D-insufficient subjects.

Design

Double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Methods

A 4-month interventional study with high-dose vitamin D (100,000 IU loading dose, followed by 20,000 IU/week) or placebo with measurements of blood pressure, lipids (total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A1 and B), and glucose metabolism parameters (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum human receptors for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), insulin, C-peptide and HOMA-IR).

Results

A total of 422 subjects with mean serum 25(OH)D level 34 nmol/L were included, with 411 subjects completing the study. Serum 25(OH)D levels increased with 56 nmol/L and decreased with 4 nmol/L in the vitamin D and placebo group, respectively. We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any of the measured CVD risk factors, except for a minor increase in sRAGE in the vitamin D group. Stratified analyses of subjects with low baseline serum 25(OH)D levels alone, or combined with blood pressure, lipid and HOMA-IR values above the median for the cohort, did not skew the results in favour of vitamin D supplementation.

Conclusion

Supplementation with vitamin D in subjects with baseline vitamin D insufficiency does not improve CVD risk factor profile.

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Rolf Jorde Tromsø Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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Guri Grimnes Tromsø Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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Objective

In addition to its skeletal effects, vitamin D may also be important for health in general. It is uncertain what level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), marker of vitamin D status, is sufficient for these effects. With decreasing serum 25(OH)D levels there is an increase in serum PTH. The point at which this occurs has been considered as a threshold for vitamin D sufficiency. The thresholds found have varied widely and have mainly been based on observational studies. However, to truly establish a threshold for vitamin D effects, this has to be based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods

The study included 2803 subjects from a general health survey, the Tromsø study, and pooled individual person data from five vitamin D intervention studies (n = 1544). Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and change in PTH after vitamin D supplementation were related to serum 25(OH)D levels in steps of 25 nmol/L (<24, 25–49, 50–74, 75–99, and >99 nmol/L).

Results

In the Tromsø study, in the females there was a gradual decrease in serum PTH with increasing serum 25(OH)D with no apparent plateau, whereas in the males the decrease in PTH in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >74 nmol/l was marginal. In pooled RCTs, there was a significant reduction in serum PTH by vitamin D supplementation regardless of baseline serum 25(OH)D level.

Conclusions

The use of the serum PTH–25(OH)D relation from observational studies to determine a threshold for vitamin D sufficiency is highly questionable.

Open access
K Amrein Thyroid Endocrinology Osteoporosis Institute Dobnig, Graz, Austria
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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A Papinutti Department of General Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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E Mathew Department of General Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Department of General Surgery, St. Elisabeth’s Hospital, Graz, Austria

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G Vila Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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D Parekh Clinician Scientist in Critical Care, Birmingham, Acute Care Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in intensive care units ranges typically between 40 and 70%. There are many reasons for being or becoming deficient in the ICU. Hepatic, parathyroid and renal dysfunction additionally increases the risk for developing vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, therapeutic interventions like fluid resuscitation, dialysis, surgery, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary bypass and plasma exchange may significantly reduce vitamin D levels. Many observational studies have consistently shown an association between low vitamin D levels and poor clinical outcomes in critically ill adults and children, including excess mortality and morbidity such as acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, duration of mechanical ventilation and sepsis. It is biologically plausible that vitamin D deficiency is an important and modifiable contributor to poor prognosis during and after critical illness. Although vitamin D supplementation is inexpensive, simple and has an excellent safety profile, testing for and treating vitamin D deficiency is currently not routinely performed. Overall, less than 800 patients have been included in RCTs worldwide, but the available data suggest that high-dose vitamin D supplementation could be beneficial. Two large RCTs in Europe and the United States, together aiming to recruit >5000 patients, have started in 2017, and will greatly improve our knowledge in this field. This review aims to summarize current knowledge in this interdisciplinary topic and give an outlook on its highly dynamic future.

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J A Tamblyn Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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C Jenkinson Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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D P Larner Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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M Hewison Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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M D Kilby Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women and may contribute to adverse events in pregnancy such as preeclampsia (PET). To date, studies of vitamin D and PET have focused primarily on serum concentrations vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) later in pregnancy. The aim here was to determine whether a more comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites earlier in pregnancy could provide predictors of PET. Using samples from the SCOPE pregnancy cohort, multiple vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in paired serum and urine prior to the onset of PET symptoms. Samples from 50 women at pregnancy week 15 were analysed, with 25 (50%) developing PET by the end of the pregnancy and 25 continuing with uncomplicated pregnancy. Paired serum and urine from non-pregnant women (n = 9) of reproductive age were also used as a control. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, 1,25(OH)2D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 were measured and showed no significant difference between women with uncomplicated pregnancies and those developing PET. As previously reported, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 was higher in all pregnant women (in the second trimester), but serum 25(OH)D2 was also higher compared to non-pregnant women. In urine, 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 were quantifiable, with both metabolites demonstrating significantly lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of both of these metabolites in those destined to develop PET. These data indicate that analysis of urinary metabolites provides an additional insight into vitamin D and the kidney, with lower urinary 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 excretion being an early indicator of a predisposition towards developing PET.

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Behnaz Abiri Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Majid Valizadeh Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

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Shirin Amini Department of Nutrition, Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran

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Mohammad Nikoohemmat Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Faeze Abbaspour Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Farhad Hosseinpanah Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Objectives

It has not been established whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with anthropometric state; therefore, this systematic review examined the relationship between serum vitamin D levels with anthropometrics and adiposity across different ages.

Methods

Studies that examined vitamin D deficiency with adiposity measures in different age groups were searched in the PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases until November 2023. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts, examined full-text articles, extracted data, and rated the quality in accordance with the Newcastle–Ottawa criteria.

Results

Seventy-two studies, with a total of 59,430 subjects, were included. Of these studies, 27 cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (with 25,615 participants) evaluated the possible link between 25(OH)D serum concentrations and anthropometric/adiposity indices in the pediatric population. Forty-two cross-sectional studies and two cohort investigations (with 33,815 participants) investigated the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adiposity measures in adults and/or the elderly population. There is evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and obesity, and revealed an inverse association between vitamin D and adiposity indicators, specifically in female subjects. However, the effects of several confounding factors should also be considered.

Conclusion

Most published studies, most of which were cross-sectional, reported a negative association between vitamin D and female adiposity indicators. Therefore, serum vitamin D levels should be monitored in overweight/obese individuals.

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Fabienne A U Fox Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany

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Lennart Koch Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany
University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT TIROL), Tirol, Austria

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Monique M B Breteler Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany
Institute for Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology (IMBIE), Faculty of Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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N Ahmad Aziz Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany
Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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Objective

Maintaining muscle function throughout life is critical for healthy ageing. Although in vitro studies consistently indicate beneficial effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) on muscle function, findings from population-based studies remain inconclusive. We therefore aimed to examine the association between 25-OHD concentration and handgrip strength across a wide age range and assess potential modifying effects of age, sex and season.

Methods

We analysed cross-sectional baseline data of 2576 eligible participants out of the first 3000 participants (recruited from March 2016 to March 2019) of the Rhineland Study, a community-based cohort study in Bonn, Germany. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relation between 25-OHD levels and grip strength while adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, season, body mass index, physical activity levels, osteoporosis and vitamin D supplementation.

Results

Compared to participants with deficient 25-OHD levels (<30 nmol/L), grip strength was higher in those with inadequate (30 to <50 nmol/L) and adequate (≥50 to ≤125 nmol/L) levels (ß inadequate = 1.222, 95% CI: 0.377; 2.067, P = 0.005; ß adequate = 1.228, 95% CI: 0.437; 2.019, P = 0.002). Modelling on a continuous scale revealed grip strength to increase with higher 25-OHD levels up to ~100 nmol/L, after which the direction reversed (ß linear = 0.505, 95% CI: 0.179; 0.830, P = 0.002; ß quadratic = –0.153, 95% CI: –0.269; -0.038, P = 0.009). Older adults showed weaker effects of 25-OHD levels on grip strength than younger adults (ß 25OHDxAge = –0.309, 95% CI: –0.594; –0.024, P = 0.033).

Conclusions

Our findings highlight the importance of sufficient 25-OHD levels for optimal muscle function across the adult life span. However, vitamin D supplementation should be closely monitored to avoid detrimental effects.

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Rong Xu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Difei Lian Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yan Xie Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Lin Mu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yali Wu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Zhilei Chen Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Baoyu Zhang Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic bone disease in which bone density and quality decrease and bone fragility increases due to a variety of causes, making it prone to fractures. The development of OP is closely related to oxidative stress. Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in the human body. Extracellular UA has antioxidant properties and is thought to have a protective effect on bone metabolism. However, the process of UA degradation can lead to intracellular oxidative stress, which together with UA-induced inflammatory factors, leads to increased bone destruction. In addition, UA can inhibit vitamin D production, resulting in secondary hyperparathyroidism and further exacerbating UA-associated bone loss. This review summarizes the relationship between serum UA levels and bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and so on, in the hope of providing new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of OP.

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Mohammed S Razzaque Department of Pathology, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA

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Fibroblast growth factor‐23 (FGF23) controls the homeostasis of both phosphate and vitamin D. Bone-derived FGF23 can suppress the transcription of 1α‐hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase) to reduce renal activation of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). FGF23 can also activate the transcription of 24‐hydroxylase to enhance the renal degradation process of vitamin D. There is a counter-regulation for FGF23 and vitamin D; 1,25(OH)2D3 induces the skeletal synthesis and the release of FGF23, while FGF23 can suppress the production of 1,25(OH)2D3 by inhibiting 1α(OH)ase synthesis. Genetically ablating FGF23 activities in mice resulted in higher levels of renal 1α(OH)ase, which is also reflected in an increased level of serum 1,25(OH)2D3, while genetically ablating 1α(OH)ase activities in mice reduced the serum levels of FGF23. Similar feedback control of FGF23 and vitamin D is also detected in various human diseases. Further studies are required to understand the subcellular molecular regulation of FGF23 and vitamin D in health and disease.

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Elisabet Einarsdottir Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

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Minna Pekkinen Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Kaarel Krjutškov Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia

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Shintaro Katayama Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

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Juha Kere Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
School of Basic and Medical Biosciences, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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Outi Mäkitie Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Heli Viljakainen Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Objective

The effect of vitamin D at the transcriptome level is poorly understood, and furthermore, it is unclear if it differs between obese and normal-weight subjects. The objective of the study was to explore the transcriptome effects of vitamin D supplementation.

Design and methods

We analysed peripheral blood gene expression using GlobinLock oligonucleotides followed by RNA sequencing in individuals participating in a 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention study. The study involved 18 obese and 18 normal-weight subjects (of which 20 males) with mean (±s.d.) age 20.4 (±2.5) years and BMIs 36 (±10) and 23 (±4) kg/m2, respectively. The supplemental daily vitamin D dose was 50 µg (2000 IU). Data were available at baseline, 6- and 12-week time points and comparisons were performed between the vitamin D and placebo groups separately in obese and normal-weight subjects.

Results

Significant transcriptomic changes were observed at 6 weeks, and only in the obese subjects: 1724 genes were significantly upregulated and 186 genes were downregulated in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Further analyses showed several enriched gene categories connected to mitochondrial function and metabolism, and the most significantly enriched pathway was related to oxidative phosphorylation (adjusted P value 3.08 × 10−14). Taken together, our data suggest an effect of vitamin D supplementation on mitochondrial function in obese subjects.

Conclusions

Vitamin D supplementation affects gene expression in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. The altered genes are enriched in pathways related to mitochondrial function. The present study increases the understanding of the effects of vitamin D at the transcriptome level.

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Kevin D Cashman Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

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Background

Internationally, concern has been repeatedly raised about the little notable progress in the collection, analysis and use of population micronutrient status and deficiency data globally. The need for representative status and intake data for vitamin D has been highlighted as a research priority for well over a decade.

Aim and methods

A narrative review which aims to provide a summary and assessment of vitamin D nutritional status data globally. This review divides the world into the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) major regions: the Americas, Europe, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Emphasis was placed on published data on the prevalence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L (reflecting vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, respectively) as well as vitamin D intake, where possible from nationally representative surveys.

Results

Collating data from the limited number of available representative surveys from individual countries might suggest a relatively low overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in South America, Oceania and North America, whereas there is more moderate prevalence in Europe and Asia, and possibly Africa. Overall, the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L ranges from ~5 to 18% and 24 to 49%, respectively, depending on FAO world region. Usual intakes of vitamin D can also vary by FAO world region, but in general, with a few exceptions, there are very high levels of inadequacy of vitamin D intake.

Conclusions

While the burden of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy varies by world regions and not just by UVB availability, the global burden overall translates into enormous numbers of individuals at risk.

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