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Karoline Winckler Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Lise Tarnow Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Louise Lundby-Christensen Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Thomas P Almdal Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Niels Wiinberg Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Pia Eiken Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Trine W Boesgaard Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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the CIMT trial group
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Despite aggressive treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) still have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between total (25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D)) and risk of CVD in patients with T2D. Secondary objective was to examine the association between 25(OH)D and bone health. A Danish cohort of patients with T2D participating in a randomised clinical trial were analysed. In total 415 patients (68% men, age 60±9 years (mean±s.d.), duration of diabetes 12±6 years), including 294 patients (71%) treated with insulin. Carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness (carotid artery distensibility coefficient (DC) and Young's elastic modulus (YEM)) were measured by ultrasound scan as indicators of CVD. Bone health was assessed by bone mineral density and trabecular bone score measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In this cohort, 214 patients (52%) were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). Carotid IMT was 0.793±0.137 mm, DC was 0.0030±0.001 mmHg, YEM was 2354±1038 mmHg and 13 (3%) of the patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis. A 25(OH)D level was not associated with carotid IMT or arterial stiffness (P>0.3) or bone health (P>0.6) after adjustment for CVD risk factors. In conclusion, 25(OH)D status was not associated with carotid IMT, arterial stiffness or bone health in this cohort of patients with T2D. To explore these associations and the association with other biomarkers further, multicentre studies with large numbers of patients are required.

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Glenville Jones Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

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Vitamin D has many physiological functions including upregulation of intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption, mobilization of bone resorption, renal reabsorption of calcium as well as actions on a variety of pleiotropic functions. It is believed that many of the hormonal effects of vitamin D involve a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional mechanism involving binding to the cellular chromatin and regulating hundreds of genes in many tissues. This comprehensive historical review provides a unique perspective of the many steps of the discovery of vitamin D and its deficiency disease, rickets, stretching from 1650 until the present. The overview is divided into four distinct historical phases which cover the major developments in the field and in the process highlighting the: (a) first recognition of rickets or vitamin D deficiency; (b) discovery of the nutritional factor, vitamin D and its chemical structure; (c) elucidation of vitamin D metabolites including the hormonal form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; (d) delineation of the vitamin D cellular machinery, functions and vitamin D-related diseases which focused on understanding the mechanism of action of vitamin D in its many target cells.

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Christian Trummer Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Stefan Pilz Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Verena Schwetz Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Elisabeth Lerchbaum Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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Background

Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D is involved in many functions of the reproductive system in both genders.

Aim

The aim of this review was to provide an overview on the effects of vitamin D on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women and androgen metabolism in men.

Methods

We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed for relevant English language publications published from January 2012 until September 2017.

Results and discussion

The vitamin D receptor and vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes are found in reproductive tissues of women and men. In women, vitamin D status has been associated with several features of PCOS. In detail, cross-sectional data suggest a regulatory role of vitamin D in PCOS-related aspects such as ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance as well as hyperandrogenism. Moreover, results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for metabolic, endocrine and fertility aspects in PCOS. In men, vitamin D status has been associated with androgen levels and hypogonadism. Further, there is some evidence for a favorable effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone concentrations, although others failed to show a significant effect on testosterone levels.

Conclusion

In summary, vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse fertility outcomes including PCOS and hypogonadism, but the evidence is insufficient to establish causality. High-quality RCTs are needed to further evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in PCOS women as well as on androgen levels in men.

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Agnès Linglart Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Martin Biosse-Duplan Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Karine Briot Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Catherine Chaussain Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Laure Esterle Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Séverine Guillaume-Czitrom Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Peter Kamenicky Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Jerome Nevoux Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Dominique Prié Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Anya Rothenbuhler Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Philippe Wicart Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France
Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Pol Harvengt Service d'Endocrinologie et Diabétologie de l'Enfant, Service de Pédiatrie générale – Consultation de rhumatologie, Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Service d'ORL et chirurgie cervico-maxillo-faciale, Université Paris 11, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphore, Service d'Odontologie-Maladies Rares Hôpital Bretonneau 2 rue Carpeaux, Université Paris Descartes 12 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Service Rhumatologie B Hôpital Cochin, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares des Maladies Auto-Inflammatoires Rares de l'Enfant, Service d'explorations fonctionnelles rénales, Service de Chirurgie infantile orthopédique, Association de patients RVRH-XLH, Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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In children, hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) is revealed by delayed walking, waddling gait, leg bowing, enlarged cartilages, bone pain, craniostenosis, spontaneous dental abscesses, and growth failure. If undiagnosed during childhood, patients with hypophosphatemia present with bone and/or joint pain, fractures, mineralization defects such as osteomalacia, entesopathy, severe dental anomalies, hearing loss, and fatigue. Healing rickets is the initial endpoint of treatment in children. Therapy aims at counteracting consequences of FGF23 excess, i.e. oral phosphorus supplementation with multiple daily intakes to compensate for renal phosphate wasting and active vitamin D analogs (alfacalcidol or calcitriol) to counter the 1,25-diOH-vitamin D deficiency. Corrective surgeries for residual leg bowing at the end of growth are occasionally performed. In absence of consensus regarding indications of the treatment in adults, it is generally accepted that medical treatment should be reinitiated (or maintained) in symptomatic patients to reduce pain, which may be due to bone microfractures and/or osteomalacia. In addition to the conventional treatment, optimal care of symptomatic patients requires pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of pain and joint stiffness, through appropriated rehabilitation. Much attention should be given to the dental and periodontal manifestations of HR. Besides vitamin D analogs and phosphate supplements that improve tooth mineralization, rigorous oral hygiene, active endodontic treatment of root abscesses and preventive protection of teeth surfaces are recommended. Current outcomes of this therapy are still not optimal, and therapies targeting the pathophysiology of the disease, i.e. FGF23 excess, are desirable. In this review, medical, dental, surgical, and contributions of various expertises to the treatment of HR are described, with an effort to highlight the importance of coordinated care.

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Xiaoli Jin Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Jiankang Shen Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Tao Liu Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Ru Zhou Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Xunbo Huang Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Tianxiang Wang Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Weize Wu Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Mingliang Wang Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Rongli Xie Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Jianming Yuan Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital Lu Wan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Objective

The aim was to explore the effects of preoperative calcium and activated vitamin D3 supplementation on post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and hypo-parathyroid hormone-emia (hypo-PTHemia).

Methods

A total of 209 patients were randomly divided into control group (CG) and experimental group (EG). Oral calcium and activated vitamin D3 supplementation were preoperatively administered to EG, whereas a placebo was administered to CG. Data on serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations before operation, on postoperative day 1 (POPD1), at postoperative week 3 (POPW3), and on the length of postoperative hospitalization were collected.

Results

The serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations, as well as the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia and hypo-PTHemia, did not significantly differ between EG and CG. Subgroup analysis revealed that the serum calcium concentrations of the experimental bilateral thyroidectomy subgroup (eBTS) on POPD1 and POPW3 were higher than that of the control bilateral thyroidectomy subgroup (cBTS) (P < 0.05); the reduction of serum calcium in eBTS on POPD1 and POPW3 was less than those in cBTS (P < 0.05). However, significant differences were not observed between the unilateral thyroidectomy subgroups (UTS) (P > 0.05). Moreover, the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia in cBTS on POPD1 was significantly higher than that in eBTS (65.9% vs 41.7%) (P < 0.05). The length of hospitalization in cBTS (3.55 ± 1.89 days) was significantly longer than that (2.79 ± 1.15 days) in eBTS (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

Short-term preoperative prophylactic oral calcium and activated vitamin D3 supplementation could effectively reduce the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia and decrease the length of postoperative hospitalization in patients who have undergone bilateral thyroidectomy.

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A Chinoy Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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M Skae Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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A Babiker King Abdullah Specialized Children’s Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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D Kendall Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, UK

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M Z Mughal Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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R Padidela Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK

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Background

Hypoparathyroidism is characterised by hypocalcaemia, and standard management is with an active vitamin D analogue and adequate oral calcium intake (dietary and/or supplements). Little is described in the literature about the impact of intercurrent illnesses on calcium homeostasis in children with hypoparathyroidism.

Methods

We describe three children with hypoparathyroidism in whom intercurrent illnesses led to hypocalcaemia and escalation of treatment with alfacalcidol (1-hydroxycholecalciferol) and calcium supplements.

Results

Three infants managed with standard treatment for hypoparathyroidism (two with homozygous mutations in GCMB2 gene and one with Sanjad-Sakati syndrome) developed symptomatic hypocalcaemia (two infants developed seizures) following respiratory or gastrointestinal illnesses. Substantial increases in alfacalcidol doses (up to three times their pre-illness doses) and calcium supplementation were required to achieve acceptable serum calcium concentrations. However, following resolution of illness, these children developed an increase in serum calcium and hypercalciuria, necessitating rapid reduction to pre-illness dosages of alfacalcidol and oral calcium supplementation.

Conclusion

Intercurrent illness may precipitate symptomatic hypocalcaemia in children with hypoparathyroidism, necessitating increase in dosages of alfacalcidol and calcium supplements. Close monitoring is required on resolution of the intercurrent illness, with timely reduction of dosages of active analogues of vitamin D and calcium supplements to prevent hypercalcaemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis.

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Barbara J Boucher Blizard Institute, Barts & The London school of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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Our knowledge of vitamin D has come a long way since the 100 years it took for doctors to accept, between 1860 and 1890, that both sunlight and cod liver oil (a well-known folk remedy) cured and prevented rickets. Vitamins D2/D3 were discovered exactly a hundred years ago, and over the last 50 years vitamin D has been found to have many effects on virtually all human tissues and not just on bone health, while mechanisms affecting the actions of vitamin D at the cellular level are increasingly understood, but deficiency persists globally. Observational studies in humans have shown that better provision of vitamin D is strongly associated, dose-wise, with reductions in current and future health risks in line with the known actions of vitamin D. Randomised controlled trials, commonly accepted as providing a ‘gold standard’ for assessing the efficacy of new forms of treatment, have frequently failed to provide supportive evidence for the expected health benefits of supplementation. Such RCTs, however, have used designs evolved for testing drugs while vitamin D is a nutrient; the appreciation of this difference is critical to identifying health benefits from existing RCT data and for improving future RCT design. This report aims, therefore, to provide a brief overview of the evidence for a range of non-bony health benefits of vitamin D repletion; to discuss specific aspects of vitamin D biology that can confound RCT design and how to allow for them.

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Johanna Öberg Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Rolf Jorde Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Yngve Figenschau Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
Diagnostic Clinic, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Per Medbøe Thorsby Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemical Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Oslo, Norway

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Sandra Rinne Dahl Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemical Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Oslo, Norway

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Anne Winther Division of Neurosciences, Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Guri Grimnes Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Objective

Combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use has been associated with higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Here, we investigate the relation between CHC use and vitamin D metabolism to elucidate its clinical interpretation.

Methods

The cross-sectional Fit Futures 1 included 1038 adolescents. Here, a subgroup of 182 girls with available 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and measured free 25(OH)D levels, in addition to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), was investigated. Vitamin D metabolites were compared between girls using (CHC+) and not using CHC (CHC−). Further, the predictability of CHC on 25(OH)D levels was assessed in a multiple regression model including lifestyle factors. The ratios 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D (vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR)) in relation to 25(OH)D were presented in scatterplots.

Results

CHC+ (n  = 64; 35% of the girls) had higher 25(OH)D levels (mean ± s.d., 60.3 ± 22.2) nmol/L) than CHC- (n  = 118; 41.8 ± 19.3 nmol/L), P -values <0.01. The differences in 25(OH)D levels between CHC+ and CHC− were attenuated but remained significant after the adjustment of lifestyle factors. CHC+ also had higher levels of 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, DBP and calcium than CHC−, whereas 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, PTH, FGF23 and albumin were significantly lower. Free 25(OH)D and VMR did not statistically differ, and both ratios appeared similar in relation to 25(OH)D, irrespective of CHC status.

Conclusion

This confirms a clinical impact of CHC on vitamin D levels in adolescents. Our observations are likely due to an increased DBP-concentration, whereas the free 25(OH)D appears unaltered.

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Raja Padidela Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital and Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Moira S Cheung Evelina London Children’s Hospital, London, UK

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Vrinda Saraff Birmingham Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK

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Poonam Dharmaraj Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK

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X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is caused by a pathogenic variant in the PHEX gene, which leads to elevated circulating FGF23. High FGF23 causes hypophosphataemia, reduced active vitamin D concentration and clinically manifests as rickets in children and osteomalacia in children and adults. Conventional therapy for XLH includes oral phosphate and active vitamin D analogues but does not specifically treat the underlying pathophysiology of elevated FGF23-induced hypophosphataemia. In addition, adherence to conventional therapy is limited by frequent daily dosing and side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms, secondary hyperparathyroidism and nephrocalcinosis. Burosumab, a recombinant human IgG1 MAB that binds to and inhibits the activity of FGF23, is administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. In clinical trials (phase 2 and 3) burosumab was shown to improve phosphate homeostasis that consequently resolves the skeletal/non-skeletal manifestations of XLH. Burosumab was licensed in Europe (February 2018) with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, UK approving use within its marketing authorisation in October 2018. In this publication, the British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group (BPABG) reviewed current evidence and provide expert recommendations for care pathway and management of XLH with burosumab.

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Rong Xu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Difei Lian Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yan Xie Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Lin Mu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yali Wu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Zhilei Chen Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Baoyu Zhang Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic bone disease in which bone density and quality decrease and bone fragility increases due to a variety of causes, making it prone to fractures. The development of OP is closely related to oxidative stress. Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in the human body. Extracellular UA has antioxidant properties and is thought to have a protective effect on bone metabolism. However, the process of UA degradation can lead to intracellular oxidative stress, which together with UA-induced inflammatory factors, leads to increased bone destruction. In addition, UA can inhibit vitamin D production, resulting in secondary hyperparathyroidism and further exacerbating UA-associated bone loss. This review summarizes the relationship between serum UA levels and bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and so on, in the hope of providing new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of OP.

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