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Milou Cecilia Madsen Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Martin den Heijer Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Claudia Pees Walaeus Library, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Nienke R Biermasz Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Leontine E H Bakker Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Testosterone therapy is the cornerstone in the care of men with hypogonadism and transgender males. Gel and intramuscular injections are most frequently used and are registered and included in the international guidelines. The specific preparation should be selected according to the patient’s preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. As the majority of men with hypogonadism and transgender males require lifelong treatment with testosterone, it is important to utilize a regimen that is effective, safe, inexpensive, and convenient to use with optimal mimicking of the physiological situation. This systematic review reviews current literature on differences between the three most used testosterone preparations in adult men with hypogonadism and transgender males. Although it appeared hardly any comparative studies have been carried out, there are indications of differences between the preparations, for example, on the stability of testosterone levels, hematocrit, bone mineral density, and patient satisfaction. However, there are no studies on the effects of testosterone replacement on endpoints such as cardiovascular disease in relation to hematocrit or osteoporotic fractures in relation to bone mineral density. The effect of testosterone therapy on health-related quality of life is strongly underexposed in the reviewed studies, while this is a highly relevant outcome measure from a patient perspective. In conclusion, current recommendations on testosterone treatment appear to be based on data primarily from non-randomized clinical studies and observational studies. The availability of reliable comparative data between the different preparations will assist in the process of individual decision-making to choose the most suitable formula.

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Veronica Kieffer
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Kate Davies University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Christine Gibson University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Morag Middleton University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Jean Munday University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Shashana Shalet University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Lisa Shepherd University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Phillip Yeoh University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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This competency framework was developed by a working group of endocrine specialist nurses with the support of the Society for Endocrinology to enhance the clinical care that adults with an endocrine disorder receive. Nurses should be able to demonstrate that they are functioning at an optimal level in order for patients to receive appropriate care. By formulating a competency framework from which an adult endocrine nurse specialist can work, it is envisaged that their development as professional practitioners can be enhanced. This is the second edition of the Competency Framework for Adult Endocrine Nursing. It introduces four new competencies on benign adrenal tumours, hypo- and hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. The authors and the Society for Endocrinology welcome constructive feedback on the document, both nationally and internationally, in anticipation that further developments and ideas can be incorporated into future versions.

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Shuang Ye Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Yuanyuan Xu Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Jiehao Li Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Shuhui Zheng Research Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Peng Sun Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China

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Tinghuai Wang Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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The role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) signaling, including promotion of Ezrin phosphorylation (which could be activated by estrogen), has not yet been clearly identified in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of GPER and Ezrin in TNBC patients. Clinicopathologic features including age, menopausal status, tumor size, nuclear grade, lymph node metastasis, AJCC TNM stage, and ER, PR and HER-2 expression were evaluated from 249 TNBC cases. Immunohistochemical staining of GPER and Ezrin was performed on TNBC pathological sections. Kaplan–Meier analyses, as well as logistic regressive and Cox regression model tests were applied to evaluate the prognostic significance between different subgroups. Compared to the GPER-low group, the GPER-high group exhibited higher TNM staging (P = 0.021), more death (P < 0.001), relapse (P < 0.001) and distant events (P < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that GPER-high patients had a decreased OS (P < 0.001), PFS (P < 0.001), LRFS (P < 0.001) and DDFS (P < 0.001) than GPER-low patients. However, these differences in prognosis were not statistically significant in post-menopausal patients (OS, P = 0.8617; PFS, P = 0.1905; LRFS, P = 0.4378; DDFS, P = 0.2538). There was a significant positive correlation between GPER and Ezrin expression level (R = 0.508, P < 0.001) and the effect of Ezrin on survival prognosis corresponded with GPER. Moreover, a multivariable analysis confirmed that GPER and Ezrin level were both significantly associated with poor DDFS (HR: 0.346, 95% CI 0.182–0.658, P = 0.001; HR: 0.320, 95% CI 0.162–0.631, P = 0.001). Thus, overexpression of GPER and Ezrin may contribute to aggressive behavior and indicate unfavorable prognosis in TNBC; this may correspond to an individual’s estrogen levels.

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Kristin Ottarsdottir Primary Health Care, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Margareta Hellgren Primary Health Care, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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David Bock Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Anna G Nilsson Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Bledar Daka Primary Health Care, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Purpose

We aimed to investigate the association between SHBG and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-Ir) in men and women in a prospective observational study.

Methods

The Vara-Skövde cohort is a random population of 2816 participants living in southwestern Sweden, aged 30–74. It was recruited between 2002 and 2005, and followed up in 2012–2014. After excluding participants on insulin therapy or hormone replacement therapy, 1193 individuals (649 men, 544 women) were included in the present study. Fasting blood samples were collected at both visits and stored in biobank. All participants were physically examined by a trained nurse. SHBG was measured with immunoassay technique. Linear regressions were computed to investigate the association between SHBG and HOMA-Ir both in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, adjusting for confounding factors.

Results

The mean follow-up time was 9.7 ± 1.4 years. Concentrations of SHBG were significantly inversely associated with log transformed HOMA-Ir in all groups with estimated standardized slopes (95% CI): men: −0.20 (−0.3;−0.1), premenopausal women: −0.26 (−0.4;−0.2), postmenopausal women: −0.13 (−0.3;−0.0) at visit 1. At visit 2 the results were similar. When comparing the groups, a statistically significant difference was found between men and post-menopausal women (0.12 (0.0;0.2) P value = 0.04). In the fully adjusted model, SHBG at visit 1 was also associated with HOMA-Ir at visit 2, and the estimated slopes were −0.16 (−0.2;−0.1), −0.16 (−0.3;−0.1) and −0.07 (−0.2;0.0) for men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively.

Main conclusion

Levels of SHBG predicted the development of insulin resistance in both men and women, regardless of menopausal state.

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Kathrin R Frey Department of Medicine I, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Tina Kienitz Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany

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Julia Schulz Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany

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Manfred Ventz Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany

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Kathrin Zopf Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany

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Marcus Quinkler Endocrinology in Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany

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Context

Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) or congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) receive life-long glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Daily GC doses are often above the physiological cortisol production rate and can cause long-term morbidities such as osteoporosis. No prospective trial has investigated the long-term effect of different GC therapies on bone mineral density (BMD) in those patients.

Objectives

To determine if patients on hydrocortisone (HC) or prednisolone show changes in BMD after follow-up of 5.5 years. To investigate if BMD is altered after switching from immediate- to modified-release HC.

Design and patients

Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with evaluation of BMD by DXA at visit1, after 2.2 ± 0.4 (visit2) and after 5.5 ± 0.8 years (visit3) included 36 PAI and 8 CAH patients. Thirteen patients received prednisolone (age 52.5 ± 14.8 years; 8 women) and 31 patients received immediate-release HC (age 48.9 ± 15.8 years; 22 women). Twelve patients on immediate-release switched to modified-release HC at visit2.

Results

Prednisolone showed significantly lower Z-scores compared to HC at femoral neck (−0.85 ± 0.80 vs −0.25 ± 1.16, P < 0.05), trochanter (−0.96 ± 0.62 vs 0.51 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) and total hip (−0.78 ± 0.55 vs 0.36 ± 1.04, P < 0.05), but not at lumbar spine, throughout the study. Prednisolone dose decreased by 8% over study time, but no significant effect was seen on BMD. BMD did not change significantly after switching from immediate- to modified-release HC.

Conclusions

The use of prednisolone as hormone replacement therapy results in significantly lower BMD compared to HC. Patients on low-dose HC replacement therapy showed unchanged Z-scores within the normal reference range during the study period.

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Kaisu Luiro Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Unit, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Kristiina Aittomäki Department of Medical Genetics, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Pekka Jousilahti Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

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Juha S Tapanainen Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Unit, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Medical Research Center, PEDEGO Research Unit, Oulu, Finland

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Objective

To study the use of hormone therapy (HT), morbidity and reproductive outcomes of women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) due to FSH-resistant ovaries (FSHRO).

Design

A prospective follow-up study in a university-based tertiary clinic setting.

Methods

Twenty-six women with an inactivating A189V FSH receptor mutation were investigated by means of a health questionnaire and clinical examination. Twenty-two returned the health questionnaire and 14 were clinically examined. Main outcome measures in the health questionnaire were reported as HT, morbidity, medication and infertility treatment outcomes. In the clinical study, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were compared to age-matched controls from a national population survey (FINRISK). Average number of controls was 326 per FSHRO subject (range 178–430). Bone mineral density and whole-body composition were analyzed with DXA. Psychological and sexual well-being was assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI21), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires.

Results

HT was initiated late (median 18 years of age) compared with normal puberty and the median time of use was shorter (20–22 years) than the normal fertile period. Osteopenia was detected in 9/14 of the FSHRO women despite HT. No major risk factors for CVD or diabetes were found.

Conclusions

HT of 20 years seems to be associated with a similar cardiovascular and metabolic risk factor profile as in the population control group. However, optimal bone health may require an early-onset and longer period of HT, which would better correspond to the natural fertile period.

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Ying Hua Department of Administrative Office, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Xiaoshan Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Jinqiong Fang Department of Administrative Office, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Xiaoshan Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Xiaocong Yao Department of Osteoporosis Care and Control, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Xiaoshan Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Zhongxin Zhu Department of Osteoporosis Care and Control, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Xiaoshan Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
Department of Clinical Research Center, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Xiaoshan Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Background

Obesity and osteoporosis are major public health issues globally. The prevalence of these two diseases prompts the need to better understand the relationship between them. Previous studies, however, have yielded controversial findings on this issue. Therefore, our aim in this study was to evaluate the independent association between waist circumference (WC), as a marker of obesity, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine among middle-aged adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Methods

Our analysis was based on NHANES data from 2011 to 2018, including 5084 adults, 40–59 years of age. A weighted multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between WC and lumbar BMD, with smooth curve fitting performed for non-linearities.

Results

After adjusting for BMI and other potential confounders, WC was negatively associated with lumbar BMD in men (β = −2.8, 95% CI: −4.0 to −1.6) and premenopausal women (β = −2.6, 95% CI: −4.1 to −1.1). On subgroup analysis stratified by BMI, this negative association was more significant in men with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (β = −4.1, 95% CI: −6.3 to −2.0) and in pre- and postmenopausal women with a BMI <25 kg/m2 (premenopausal women: β= −5.7, 95% CI: −9.4 to−2.0; postmenopausal women: β=−5.6, 95% CI: −9.7 to −1.6). We further identified an inverted U-shaped relationship among premenopausal women, with a point of inflection at WC of 80 cm.

Conclusions

Our study found an inverse relationship between WC and lumbar BMD in middle-aged men with BMI ≥30 kg/m2, and women with BMI <25 kg/m2.

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Victoria Chatzimavridou-Grigoriadou Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
Department of Endocrinology, University of Manchester, School of Medical Sciences, Manchester, UK

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Lisa H Barraclough Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
Department of Endocrinology, University of Manchester, School of Medical Sciences, Manchester, UK

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Rohit Kochhar Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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Lucy Buckley Department of Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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Nooreen Alam Department of Radiotherapy, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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Claire E Higham Department of Endocrinology, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK

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Background

Radiotherapy-related insufficiency fractures (RRIFs) represent a common, burdensome consequence of pelvic radiotherapy. Their underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and data on the effect of osteoporosis are contradictory, with limited studies assessing bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

Methods

BMD by DXA (Hologic) scan and fracture risk following pelvic RRIF were retrospectively assessed in 39 patients (median age 68 years) at a tertiary cancer centre. Patient characteristics and treatment history are presented narratively; correlations were explored using univariate regression analyses.

Results

Additional cancer treatments included chemotherapy (n = 31), surgery (n = 20) and brachytherapy (n = 19). Median interval between initiation of radiotherapy and RRIF was 11 (7.5–20.8) and that between RRIF and DXA 3 was (1–6) months. Three patients had normal BMD, 16 had osteopenia and 16 osteoporosis, following World Health Organization classification. Four patients were <40 years at the time of DXA (all Z-scores > –2). Median 10-year risk for hip and major osteoporotic fracture was 3.1% (1.5–5.7) and 11.5% (7.1–13.8), respectively. Only 33.3% of patients had high fracture risk (hip fracture >4% and/or major osteoporotic >20%), and 31% fell above the intervention threshold per National Osteoporosis Guidelines Group (NOGG) guidance (2017). Higher BMD was predicted by lower pelvic radiotherapy dose (only in L3 and L4), concomitant chemotherapy and higher body mass index.

Conclusion

At the time of RRIF, most patients did not have osteoporosis, some had normal BMD and overall had low fracture risk. Whilst low BMD is a probable risk factor, it is unlikely to be the main mechanism underlying RRIFs, and further studies are required to understand the predictive value of BMD.

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Jiaxin Zhang Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Jinlan Jiang Wenzhou Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Yao Qin School of Public Health, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Yihui Zhang Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Yungang Wu Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Huadong Xu School of Public Health, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Purpose

This study aims to investigate the associations of the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) with bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in adult females from a nationally representative sample.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed among 4092 females aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Linear and logistic regressions were applied to explore the relationships of SII with BMD and the risk of osteoporosis, respectively.

Results

Linear regression analyses found that a doubling of SII levels was significantly correlated with a 1.39% (95% CI: 0.57%, 2.20%) decrease in total femur BMD, a 1.16% (95% CI: 0.31%, 2.00%) decrease in femur neck BMD, a 1.73% (95% CI: 0.78%, 2.66%) decrease in trochanter BMD, and a 1.35% (95% CI: 0.50%, 2.20%) decrease in intertrochanteric BMD among postmenopausal women, after adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression analyses showed that compared with postmenopausal women in the lowest SII quartile, those in the highest quartile had higher risks of osteoporosis in the total femur (odds ratio (OR) = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.76), trochanter (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.38), intertrochanter (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.04) as well as overall osteoporosis (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.37). In contrast, there was no significant association between SII and BMD in premenopausal women.

Conclusions

SII levels were negatively associated with BMD levels in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Elevated SII levels could be a potential risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

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Kaiyu Pan Department of Paediatrics, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Chengyue Zhang Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

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Xiaocong Yao Department of Osteoporosis, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Zhongxin Zhu Institute of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Aim

Ensuring adequate calcium (Ca) intake during childhood and adolescence is critical to acquire good peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis during older age. As one of the primary strategies to build and maintain healthy bones, we aimed to determine whether dietary Ca intake has an influence on bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study composed of 10,092 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary Ca intake and total BMD were taken as independent and dependent variables, respectively. To evaluate the association between them, we conducted weighted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings.

Results

There was a significantly positive association between dietary Ca intake and total BMD. The strongest association was observed in 12–15 year old whites, 8–11 year old and 16–19 year old Mexican Americans, and 16–19 year old individuals from other race/ethnicity, in whom each quintile of Ca intake was increased. We also found that there were significant inflection points in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group, which means that their total BMD would decrease when the dietary Ca intake was more than 2.6–2.8 g/d.

Conclusions

This cross-sectional study indicated that a considerable proportion of children and adolescents aged 8–19 years would attain greater total BMD if they increased their dietary Ca intake. However, higher dietary Ca intake (more than 2.6–2.8 g/d) is associated with lower total BMD in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group.

Open access