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Panagiotis Anagnostis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Irene Lambrinoudaki 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece

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John C Stevenson National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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Dimitrios G Goulis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of major concern in women entering menopause. The changing hormonal milieu predisposes them to increased CVD risk, due to a constellation of risk factors, such as visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysregulation in glucose homeostasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. However, an independent association of menopause per se with increased risk of CVD events has only been proven for early menopause (<45 years). Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) ameliorates most of the CVD risk factors mentioned above. Transdermal estrogens are the preferable regimen, since they do not increase triglyceride concentrations and they are not associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Although administration of MHT should be considered on an individual basis, MHT may reduce CVD morbidity and mortality, if commenced during the early postmenopausal period (<60 years or within ten years since the last menstrual period). In women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), MHT should be administered at least until the average age of menopause (50–52 years). MHT is contraindicated in women with a history of VTE and is not currently recommended for the sole purpose of CVD prevention. The risk of breast cancer associated with MHT is generally low and is mainly conferred by the progestogen. Micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone are associated with lower risk compared to other progestogens.

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Marília D’Elboux Guimarães Brescia Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Karine Candido Rodrigues Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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André Fernandes d’Alessandro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Wellington Alves Filho Department of Surgery, Walter Cantidio University Hospital, Federal University of Ceara School of Medicine (FAMED-UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil

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Willemijn Y van der Plas Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Schelto Kruijff Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Sergio Samir Arap Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Sergio Pereira de Almeida Toledo Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Fábio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Delmar Muniz Lourenço Jr Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Background

Potential influences of parathyroidectomy (PTx) on the quality of life (QoL) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT/MEN1) are unknown.

Method

Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire was prospectively applied to 30 HPT/MEN1 patients submitted to PTx (20, subtotal; 10, total with autograft) before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Parameters that were analyzed included QoL, age, HPT-related symptoms, general pain, comorbidities, biochemical/hormonal response, PTx type and parathyroid volume.

Results

Asymptomatic patients were younger (30 vs 38 years; P = 0.04) and presented higher QoL scores than symptomatic ones: Physical Component Summary score (PCS) 92.5 vs 61.2, P = 0.0051; Mental Component Summary score (MCS) 82.0 vs 56.0, P = 0.04. In both groups, QoL remained stable 1 year after PTx, independently of the number of comorbidities. Preoperative general pain was negatively correlated with PCS (r = −0.60, P = 0.0004) and MCS (r = −0.57, P = 0.0009). Also, moderate/intense pain was progressively (6/12 months) more frequent in cases developing hypoparathyroidism. The PTx type and hypoparathyroidism did not affect the QoL at 12 months although remnant parathyroid tissue volume did have a positive correlation (P = 0.0490; r = 0.3625) to PCS 12 months after surgery. Patients with one to two comorbidities had as pre-PTx PCS (P = 0.0015) as 12 months and post-PTx PCS (P = 0.0031) and MCS (P = 0.0365) better than patients with three to four comorbidities.

Conclusion

A variable QoL profile was underscored in HPT/MEN1 reflecting multiple factors associated with this complex disorder as comorbidities, advanced age at PTx and presence of preoperative symptoms or of general pain perception. Our data encourage the early indication of PTx in HPT/MEN1 by providing known metabolic benefits to target organs and avoiding potential negative impact on QoL.

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Sofya Gronskaia Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Galina Melnichenko Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Liudmila Rozhinskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Tatiana Grebennikova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elizaveta Mamedova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ekaterina Pigarova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elena Przhialkovskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Larisa Dzeranova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ivan Dedov Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Valentin Fadeyev I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

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Maria Luisa Brandi University of Florence, Surgery and Translational Medicine, Piereccaini, Firenze, Italy

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Zhanna Belaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rare endocrine disorders, characterized by low serum calcium due to inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or resistance to its action. There is little epidemiological information regarding chronic hypoparathyroidism in Russia. This study aims to build a registry database of Russian patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism who were referred for hospital treatment in order to conduct initial analysis of clinical presentations and hospital management. The Italian registry model was taken to be able to integrate our data in the future. Two hundred patients with hypoparathyroidism (n = 194) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n = 6) were enrolled over 2 years (2017–2019). The most frequent cause of hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (82.5%, mostly females), followed by idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (10%), syndromic forms of genetic hypoparathyroidism (4.5%) and forms of defective PTH action (3%). Calcium supplements and alfacalcidol were prescribed in most cases. However, a minority of patients (n = 6) needed to receive teriparatide as the only way to maintain calcium levels and to prevent symptoms of hypocalcemia. Consequently, substitution treatment with parathyroid hormone should be available in certain cases of hypoparathyroidism. This database will be useful to estimate the potential requirement for recombinant PTH in Russia and standards for clinical and therapeutic approaches.

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Henryk F Urbanski Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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Kevin Mueller Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

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Cynthia L Bethea Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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Like women, old female rhesus macaques undergo menopause and show many of the same age-associated changes, including perturbed activity/rest cycles and altered circulating levels of many hormones. Previous studies showed that administration of an estrogen agonist increased activity in female monkeys, that hormone therapy (HT) increased activity in postmenopausal women and that obesity decreased activity in women. The present study sought to determine if postmenopausal activity and circulating hormone levels also respond to HT when monkeys are fed a high-fat, high-sugar Western style diet (WSD). Old female rhesus macaques were ovo-hysterectomized (OvH) to induce surgical menopause and fed a WSD for 2 years. Half of the animals received estradiol-17β (E), beginning immediately after OvH, while the other half received placebo. Animals in both groups showed an increase in body weight and a decrease in overall activity levels. These changes were associated with a rise in both daytime and nocturnal serum leptin concentrations, but there was no change in serum concentrations of either cortisol or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). These data suggest that 2 years of HT has little or no effect on locomotor activity or circadian hormone patterns in menopausal macaques fed an obesogenic diet.

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Leyre Lorente-Poch Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Sílvia Rifà-Terricabras Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Juan José Sancho Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Danilo Torselli-Valladares Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Sofia González-Ortiz Department of Radiology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Antonio Sitges-Serra Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Objective:

Permanent hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon disease resulting most frequently from neck surgery. It has been associated with visceral calcifications but few studies have specifically this in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications in patients with long-term post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism compared with a control population.

Design:

Case–control study.

Methods:

A cross-sectional review comparing 29 consecutive patients with permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism followed-up in a tertiary reference unit for Endocrine Surgery with a contemporary control group of 501 patients who had an emergency brain CT scan. Clinical variables and prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications were recorded.

Results:

From a cohort of 46 patients diagnosed with permanent hypoparathyroidism, 29 were included in the study. The mean duration of disease was 9.2 ± 7 years. Age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia were similarly distributed in case and control groups. The prevalence of carotid artery and basal ganglia calcifications was 4 and 20 times more frequent in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism, respectively. After propensity score matching of the 28 the female patients, 68 controls were matched for age and presence of cardiovascular factors. Cases showed a four-fold prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications, whereas that of carotid calcifications was similar between cases and controls.

Conclusion:

A high prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications was observed in patients with post-surgical permanent hypoparathyroidism. It remains unclear whether carotid artery calcification may also be increased.

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Anping Su Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Yanping Gong Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Wenshuang Wu Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Rixiang Gong Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Zhihui Li Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Jingqiang Zhu
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Background

The effect of parathyroid autotransplantation on hypoparathyroidism is not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of autotransplantation of a parathyroid gland on the incidence of hypoparathyroidism and recovery of parathyroid function at 6 months after total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Methods

All patients with autotransplantation of a parathyroid gland (no inadvertent parathyroidectomy) (group A), in situ preservation of all parathyroid glands (no autotransplantation and inadvertent parathyroidectomy) (group B) or inadvertent removal of a parathyroid gland (no autotransplantation) (group C) who underwent first-time total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma between January 2013 and June 2016 were included retrospectively.

Results

Of the 702 patients, 383, 297 and 22 were respectively included in the groups A, B and C. The overall rates of transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism were 37.6% and 1.0%. The incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism was 43.9, 29.0 and 45.5% (A vs B, P = 0.000; A vs C, P = 1.000), and the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism was 1.0, 0.7 and 4.5% (P > 0.05). The recovery rates of serum parathyroid hormone levels were 71.4, 72.2 and 66.0% at 6-month follow-up (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Autotransplantation of a parathyroid gland does not affect the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism, but increases the risk of transient hypoparathyroidism when the rest of parathyroid glands are preserved in situ. At least 2 parathyroid glands should be preserved during total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection to prevent permanent hypoparathyroidism.

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Petar Milovanovic Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Laboratory for Anthropology and Skeletal Biology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Björn Busse Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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An increasing number of patients worldwide suffer from bone fractures that occur after low intensity trauma. Such fragility fractures are usually associated with advanced age and osteoporosis but also with long-term immobilization, corticosteroid therapy, diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine disorders. It is important to understand the skeletal origins of increased bone fragility in these conditions for preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat one of the most common health problems of the aged population. This review summarizes current knowledge pertaining to the phenomenon of micropetrosis (osteocyte lacunar mineralization). As an indicator of former osteocyte death, micropetrosis is more common in aged bone and osteoporotic bone. Considering that the number of mineralized osteocyte lacunae per bone area can distinguish healthy, untreated osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated osteoporotic patients, it could be regarded as a novel structural marker of impaired bone quality. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism of lacunar mineralization and to explore whether it could be an additional target for preventing or treating bone fragility related to aging and various endocrine diseases.

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Hans Valdemar López Krabbe Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jørgen Holm Petersen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Section of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Louise Laub Asserhøj Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Fertility, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Trine Holm Johannsen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Peter Christiansen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Rikke Beck Jensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Line Hartvig Cleemann Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Casper P Hagen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lærke Priskorn Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Niels Jørgensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Katharina M Main Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lise Aksglaede Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Adult patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are characterized by a highly variable phenotype, including tall stature, obesity, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, as well as an increased risk of developing insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Most adults need testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), whereas the use of TRT during puberty has been debated. In this retrospective, observational study, reproductive hormones and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition and bone mineral content were standardized to age-related standard deviation scores in 62 patients with KS aged 5.9–20.6 years. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and inhibin B were low, whereas luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were high in patients before TRT. Despite normal body mass index, body fat percentage and the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage were significantly higher in the entire group irrespective of treatment status. In patients evaluated before and during TRT, a tendency toward a more beneficial body composition with a significant reduction in the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage during TRT was found. Bone mineral content (BMC) did not differ from the reference, but BMC corrected for bone area was significantly lower when compared to the reference. This study confirms that patients with KS have an unfavorable body composition and an impaired bone mineral status already during childhood and adolescence. Systematic studies are needed to evaluate whether TRT during puberty will improve these parameters.

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Zhiyan Yu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Yueyue Wu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Rui Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Yue Li Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Shufei Zang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jun Liu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Background

This study aimed to investigate the association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods

In this study, 1243 patients with T2DM (T2DM with coexistent NAFLD, n  = 760; T2DM with no NAFLD, n  = 483) were analysed. Non-invasive markers, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4), were applied to evaluate NAFLD fibrosis risk.

Results

There was no significant difference in bone mineral density (BMD) between the NAFLD group and the non-NAFLD group or between males and females after adjusting for age, BMI and gender. In postmenopausal women, there was an increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio (OR): 4.41, 95% CI: 1.04–18.70, P = 0.039) in the FIB-4 high risk group compared to the low risk group. Similarly, in women with high risk NFS, there was an increased risk of osteoporosis (OR: 5.98, 95% CI: 1.40–25.60, P = 0.043) compared to the low risk group. Among men over 50 years old, there was no significant difference in bone mineral density between the NAFLD group and the non-NAFLD group and no significant difference between bone mineral density and incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis among those with different NAFLD fibrosis risk.

Conclusion

There was a significant association of high risk for NAFLD liver fibrosis with osteoporosis in postmenopausal diabetic women but not men. In clinical practice, gender-specific evaluation of osteoporosis is needed in patients with T2DM and coexistent NAFLD.

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Francesca Marini Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
F.I.R.M.O. Italian Foundation for the Research on Bone Diseases, Florence, Italy

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Francesca Giusti Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Teresa Iantomasi Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Federica Cioppi University Hospital of Florence, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), Florence, Italy

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Maria Luisa Brandi F.I.R.M.O. Italian Foundation for the Research on Bone Diseases, Florence, Italy

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare, inherited cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. MEN1 patients show a reduction of bone mass and a higher prevalence of early onset osteoporosis, compared to healthy population of the same age, gender, and ethnicity. During the monitoring and follow-up of MEN1 patients, the attention of clinicians is primarily focused on the diagnosis and therapy of tumors, while the assessment of bone health and mineral metabolism is, in many cases, marginally considered. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed bone and mineral metabolism features in a series of MEN1 patients from the MEN1 Florentine database. Biochemical markers of bone and mineral metabolism and densitometric parameters of bone mass were retrieved from the database and were analyzed based on age ranges and genders of patients and presence/absence of the three main MEN1-related endocrine tumor types. Our evaluation confirmed that patients with a MEN1 diagnosis have a high prevalence of earlyonset osteopenia and osteoporosis, in association with levels of serum and urinary markers of bone turnover higher than the normal reference values, regardless of their different MEN1 tumors. Fifty percent of patients younger than 26 years manifested osteopenia and 8.3% had osteoporosis, in at least one of the measured bone sites. These data suggest the importance of including biochemical and instrumental monitoring of bone metabolism and bone mass in the routine medical evaluation and follow-up of MEN1 patients and MEN1 carriers as important clinical aspects in the management of the syndrome.

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