Melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and their accessory proteins (MRAPs) evolutionarily first appear in the genome of sea lamprey. The most ancient melanocortin system consists of only two melanocortin receptors (slMCa and slMCb) and one MRAP2 (slMRAP2) protein, but the physiological roles have not been fully explored in this primitive species. Here, we synthesize and characterize the pharmacological features of slMRAP2 protein on two slMCRs. Our results show that the slMRAP2 protein lacks the long carboxyl terminus; it directly interacts and decreases the surface expression but enhances the α-MSH-induced agonism of slMCa and slMCb. In comparison with higher organisms such as elephant shark and zebrafish, we also demonstrate the constantly evolving regulatory function of the carboxyl terminus of MRAP2 protein, the unique antiparallel topology of slMRAP2 dimer and the homo- and hetero-dimerization of two slMCRs. This study elucidates the presence and modulation of melanocortin receptor by the accessory protein of the agnathans for the first time, which provides a better insight of the melanocortin system in ancient species of chordates.
Ming Zhu, Bingxin Xu, Meng Wang, Shangyun Liu, Yue Zhang and Chao Zhang
Xiang Hu, Qiao Zhang, Tian-Shu Zeng, Jiao-Yue Zhang, Jie Min, Sheng-Hua Tian, Hantao Huang, Miaomiao Peng, Nan Zhang, Mengjiao Li, Qing Wan, Fei Xiao, Yan Chen, Chaodong Wu and Lu-Lu Chen
To explore the influence by not performing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in Han Chinese over 40 years.
Overall, 6682 participants were included in the prospective cohort study and were followed up for 3 years.
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load plasma glucose (2h-PG), FPG and 2h-PG (OGTT), and HbA1c testing using World Health Organization (WHO) or American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were employed for strategy analysis.
The prevalence of diabetes is 12.4% (95% CI: 11.6–13.3), while the prevalence of prediabetes is 34.1% (95% CI: 32.9–35.3) and 56.5% (95% CI: 55.2–57.8) using WHO and ADA criteria, respectively. 2h-PG determined more diabetes individuals than FPG and HbA1c. The testing cost per true positive case of OGTT is close to FPG and less than 2h-PG or HbA1c. FPG, 2h-PG and HbA1c strategies would increase costs from complications for false-positive (FP) or false-negative (FN) results compared with OGTT. Moreover, the least individuals identified as normal by OGTT at baseline developed (pre)diabetes, and the most prediabetes individuals identified by HbA1c or FPG using ADA criteria developed diabetes.
The prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance and isolated 2-h post-load diabetes were high, and the majority of individuals with (pre)diabetes were undetected in Chinese Han population. Not performing an OGTT results in underdiagnosis, inadequate developing risk assessment and probable cost increases of (pre)diabetes in Han Chinese over 40 years and great consideration should be given to OGTT in detecting (pre)diabetes in this population. Further population-based prospective cohort study of longer-term effects is necessary to investigate the risk assessment and cost of (pre)diabetes.
Chunyun Fu, Shiyu Luo, Yingfeng Li, Qifei Li, Xuehua Hu, Mengting Li, Yue Zhang, Jiasun Su, Xuyun Hu, Yun Chen, Jin Wang, Bobo Xie, Jingsi Luo, Xin Fan, Shaoke Chen and Yiping Shen
The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) differs significantly among different ethnicities and regions, and early differentiation of transient CH is important to avoid unnecessary prolonged treatment with L-T4.
To investigate the incidence of CH based on the newborn screening program in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, and to analyze the predictors that might allow for an early differentiation between permanent (P) and transient (T) CH.
Design and methods
Data from newborn screening program over a seven-year period (January 2009 to January 2016) at Guangxi Maternal and Child Health Hospital are analyzed. Blood samples were collected on filter paper between 3 and 7 days after birth, and TSH level was measured by time-resolved fluorescence assay. Individuals with increased TSH (TSH ≥ 8 IU/L) levels detected by newborn screening were recalled for further evaluation. Serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 were determined by electrochemiluminescence assay using venous blood samples. Diagnosis of CH is based on elevated TSH levels (>10 IU/L) and decreased FT4 levels (<12 pmol/L). Patients with elevated TSH levels and normal FT4 levels were diagnosed as hyperthyrotropinemia. Permanent or transient CH was determined by using the results of thyroid function tests after temporary withdrawal of L-T4 therapy at approximately 2–3 years of age.
Among 1,238,340 infants in the newborn screening program, 14,443 individuals were recalled for reevaluation (re-call rate 1.18%), 911 and 731 individuals were subsequently determined to have hyperthyrotropinemia and CH respectively; thus, a prevalence of 1:1359 and 1:1694 for hyperthyrotropinemia and CH. Of the 731 patients with CH, 161 patients were diagnosed with permanent CH (PCH), and 159 patients were diagnosed with transient CH (TCH), the other 411 patients are too young to determine their subtypes. Patients with PCH required an increasing dose of L-T4 during the first few years, whereas patients with TCH required a decreased dose of L-T4. The TSH levels at diagnosis and the dose of L-T4 used were significantly higher in PCH cases than in transient cases. The FT4 levels at diagnosis were significantly lower in PCH cases than in TCH cases. The TSH levels at diagnosis, FT4 levels at diagnosis and L-T4 doses at 90 days were evaluated as predictors for differentiating PCH and TCH, and their accuracy at their respective optimal cutoffs were determined to be 60.6%, 66.7% and 93.9%, respectively.
The CH incidence in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is slightly higher (1:1694) compared to the worldwide levels (1/2000–1/4000). The PCH and TCH ratio is close to 1; thus, the estimated PCH incidence is 1/3388, which is similar to reported worldwide average incidence (1/3000). The L-T4 dose required at 90 days (>30 μg/day) has the highest predictive value for PCH. Earlier differentiation of PCH and TCH helps to determine appropriate treatment course.