According to its incidence patterns, colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur more frequently in males than in females, and the evidence shows that CRC is a hormone-related tumor. These findings indicate that androgen receptor (AR) gene methylation might be important for the regulation of the CRC risk in the different sexes. We used a case–control study to investigate the association between AR methylation in peripheral blood (PBL) and CRC risk. A cohort study was conducted to analyze the effect of AR methylation levels in both PBL and tissue on the prognosis of CRC. AR methylation levels were detected using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM). The results indicate that the hypomethylation of AR was significantly associated with the risk of CRC (OR = 1.869, 95% CI: 1.629–2.141, P < 0.001), and the results remained similar after adjusting for the propensity score (PS) (OR = 1.344, 95% CI: 1.147–1.575, P < 0.001) and PS matching (OR = 1.138, 95% CI: 1.000–1.292 P = 0.049). The hypomethylation of AR was significantly associated with CRC in males (OR = 2.309, 95% CI: 1.200–4.245; P = 0.012) but not females (OR = 1.000, 95% CI: 0.567–1.765; P = 0.999). The methylation status of AR in PBL and tissue does not seem to be associated with prognosis in colorectal cancer (OR = 1.425, 95% CI: 0.895–2.269, P = 0.135; OR = 0.930, 95% CI: 0.674–1.285, P = 0.661). We conclude that AR hypomethylation in PBL is associated with a high risk of CRC and may serve as a biomarker. Further studies involving large sample sizes are needed to validate the results of this study.
Tingting Xia, Hongru Sun, Hao Huang, Haoran Bi, Rui Pu, Lei Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Ying Liu, Jing Xu, Justina Ucheojor Onwuka, Yupeng Liu, Binbin Cui and Yashuang Zhao
Jiashu Li, Aihua Liu, Haixia Liu, Chenyan Li, Weiwei Wang, Cheng Han, Xinyi Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Weiping Teng and Zhongyan Shan
Thyroid dysfunction is a frequently found endocrine disorder among reproductively aged women. Subclinical hypothyroidism is the most common condition of thyroid disorders during pregnancy and is defined as manifesting a thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration exceeding the trimester-specific reference value, with a normal free thyroxine concentration. Here, we evaluated the prospective association between spontaneous miscarriage and first-trimester thyroid function. We conducted a case–control study (421 cases and 1684 controls) that was nested. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) status were measured. We found that higher TSH was related to spontaneous miscarriage (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13–1.30, P < 0.001). Compared with women with TSH levels of 0.4–<2.5 mIU/L, the risk of miscarriage was increased in women with TSH levels of 2.5–<4.87 mIU/L (OR 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16–1.87) and TSH greater than 4.87 mIU/L (OR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.22–3.18). After controlling for the confounding factor, TPOAb positivity status and FT4, the results were similar. The present study showed that higher TSH was associated with miscarriage in early pregnancy. In fact, TSH levels between 2.5 and 4.87 mIU/L increased the risk for miscarriage, with TSH greater than 4.87 mIU/L increasing the risk even further.