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Reshma Aziz Merchant Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

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Michael Wong Wai Kit Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

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Jia Yi Lim Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

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John E Morley Division of Geriatric Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA

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Objective

To investigate the association of normal BMI with central obesity (CO), high BMI with CO, high BMI without CO, and normal BMI without CO, with function and cognition in older adults.

Methods

Cross-sectional study involving 754 participants ≥ 65 years. Data collected include demographics, cognition, and physical measurements.

Results

Females had a higher prevalence of high BMI with CO and a lower prevalence of high BMI without CO than males (61.0% vs 44.6% and 4.6% vs 15.0%, respectively). Within gender, CO groups, regardless of BMI, had lower mini-mental state examination (MMSE), handgrip strength (HGS), and longer timed-up-and-go (TUG) scores. Overall, the high BMI without CO group had the highest MMSE scores, HGS, and shortest TUG. Amongst males, HGS was significantly lower in the normal BMI with CO group (B −3.28, 95% CI −6.32 to −0.23, P = 0.04). CO, regardless of normal/high BMI, had significantly longer TUG time (B 2.65, 95% CI 0.45 to 4.84, P = 0.02; B 1.07, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.88, P = 0.01, respectively) than normal BMI without CO group. CO was associated with lower MMSE scores in both genders but significant only in males with normal BMI and CO (B −1.60, 95% CI −3.15 to −0.06, P = 0.04).

Conclusion

CO may be a better predictor of obesity and adverse outcomes in older adults. High BMI without CO was associated with better outcomes especially in males but require further validation. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain the impact of BMI and/or CO on function, cognition, mortality, and gender differences.

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Yi Jia School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Yanan Yang School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Jing Qu School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Lijun Yin School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Xiaohui Wang School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Adipokine chemerin plays important roles in disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism of obesity and obesity-related diseases, and exercise-induced improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism is closely related to the decrease of chemerin, but the mechanisms by which chemerin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism remain unclarified. Hypotestosterone induces male obesity and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism through androgen receptor (AR) and its target genes: glucose and lipid metabolism-related molecules (including FOXO1, PEPCK, PGC-1α, and SCD1). Recently, the link between them has been reported that chemerin modulated the secretion of androgen. In this study, global chemerin knockout (chemerin (−/−)) mice were established to demonstrate the roles of chemerin in regulating blood glucose and blood lipid of mice under diet (high-fat (HFD) and normal diet) and exercise interventions and then to explore its mechanisms (AR – glucose and lipid metabolism enzymes). We found that the blood lipid and adipocyte size were low accompanied by the improvements in the levels of serum testosterone, gastrocnemius AR, and gastrocnemius FOXO1, SCD1, and PGC-1α in HFD chemerin (−/−) mice, but exercise-induced improvements of these indicators in HFD WT mice were attenuated or abolished in HFD chemerin (−/−) mice. In conclusion, the decrease of chemerin improved the blood lipid profile of HFD male mice at sedentary and exercise states, mediated partly by the increases of testosterone and AR to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism enzymes. To our knowledge, it is the first report that chemerin’s regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism might be mediated by testosterone and AR in vivo.

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Lei Lei Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Yi-Hua Bai Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Hong-Ying Jiang Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Ting He Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Meng Li Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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Jia-Ping Wang Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital Affiliated to Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China

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N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation has been reported to play a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the key component of m6A methylation has not been well explored in T2D. This study investigates the biological role and the underlying mechanism of m6A methylation genes in T2D. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database combined with the m6A methylation and transcriptome data of T2D patients were used to identify m6A methylation differentially expressed genes (mMDEGs). Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to predict T2D-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to determine the biological functions of mMDEGs. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to further confirm the functional enrichment of mMDEGs and determine candidate hub genes. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis was carried out to screen for the best predictors of T2D, and RT-PCR and Western blot were used to verify the expression of the predictors. A total of 194 overlapping mMDEGs were detected. GO, KEGG, and GSEA analysis showed that mMDEGs were enriched in T2D and insulin signaling pathways, where the insulin gene (INS), the type 2 membranal glycoprotein gene (MAFA), and hexokinase 2 (HK2) gene were found. The LASSO regression analysis of candidate hub genes showed that the INS gene could be invoked as a predictive hub gene for T2D. INS, MAFA,and HK2 genes participate in the T2D disease process, but INS can better predict the occurrence of T2D.

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