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  • Author: Ya-ping Wang x
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Clinical characteristics of 138 Chinese female patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Rui-yi Tang, Rong Chen, Miao Ma, Shou-qing Lin, Yi-wen Zhang, and Ya-ping Wang


To evaluate the clinical features of Chinese women with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).


We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic management and fertility outcomes of 138 women with IHH. All patients had been treated and followed up at an academic medical centre during 1990–2016.


Among the 138 patients, 82 patients (59.4%) were diagnosed with normosmic IHH and 56 patients (40.6%) were diagnosed with Kallmann syndrome (KS). The patients with IHH experienced occasional menses (4.3%), spontaneous thelarche (45.7%) or spontaneous pubarche (50.7%). Women with thelarche had a higher percentage of pubarche (P< 0.001) and higher gonadotropin concentrations (P< 0.01). Olfactory bulb/sulci abnormalities were found during the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of all patients with KS. Most patients with IHH had osteopenia and low bone age. Among the 16 women who received gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment, ovulation induction or assisted reproductive technology, the clinical pregnancy rate was 81.3% and the live birth rate was 68.8%.


The present study revealed that the phenotypic spectrum of women with IHH is broader than typical primary amenorrhoea with no secondary sexual development, including occasional menses, spontaneous thelarche or pubarche. MRI of the olfactory system can facilitate the diagnosis of KS. Pregnancy can be achieved after receiving appropriate treatment.

Open access

Association of n-6 PUFAs with the risk of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients

Ju-shuang Li, Tao Wang, Jing-jing Zuo, Cheng-nan Guo, Fang Peng, Shu-zhen Zhao, Hui-hui Li, Xiang-qing Hou, Yuan Lan, Ya-ping Wei, Chao Zheng, and Guang-yun Mao

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and leading cause of visual impairment in adults worldwide, is suggested to be linked to abnormal lipid metabolism. The present study aims to comprehensively investigate the relationship between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and DR. This was a propensity score matching based case–control study, including 69 pairs of DR patients and type 2 diabetic patients without DR with mean age of 56.7 ± 9.2 years. Five n-6 PUFAs were determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Principle component regression (PCR) and multiple conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the association of DR risk with n-6 PUFAs depending on independent training and testing sets, respectively. According to locally weighted regression model, we observed obvious negative correlation between levels of five n-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, eicosadienoic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and arachidonicacid) and DR. Based on multiple PCR model, we also observed significant negative association between the five n-6 PUFAs and DR with adjusted OR (95% CI) as 0.62 (0.43,0.87). When being evaluated depending on the testing set, the association was still existed, and PCR model had excellent classification performance, in which area under the curve (AUC) was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.99). In addition, the model also had valid calibration with a non-significant Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square of 9.44 (P = 0.307) in the testing set. n-6 PUFAs were inversely associated with the presence of DR, and the principle component could be potential indicator in distinguishing DR from other T2D patients.

Open access

Ultrasound measurement of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscle parameters to identify chronic thyrotoxic myopathy

Shi-en Fu, Rou-mei Wang, Xing-huan Liang, Jing Xian, Jie Pan, Xue-lan Chen, Cheng-cheng Qiu, Zhi-ping Tang, Ying-fen Qin, Hai-yan Yang, Li-li Huang, Ya-qi Kuang, Yan Ma, and Zuo-jie Luo


Chronic thyrotoxic myopathy (CTM) is a common, easily neglected complication of hyperthyroidism. There are currently no standard diagnostic criteria for CTM, and the ultrasonic characteristics of CTM-affected skeletal muscle remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to evaluate hyperthyroid patients for CTM by ultrasound and identify ultrasonic muscle parameter cutoffs for CTM diagnosis.

Materials and methods

Each participant underwent ultrasonography. The original (muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA), and cross-sectional area (CSA)) and corrected (MT/height (HT), MT/body mass index (BMI), CSA/HT, and CSA/BMI) parameters of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis (VM) were evaluated. The diagnostic effectiveness of ultrasound for predicting CTM was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Our study included 203 participants: 67 CTM patients (18 males, 49 females), 67 non-CTM patients (28 males, 39 females) and 69 healthy controls (20 males, 49 females).


The CTM group had lower muscular ultrasonic and anthropometric parameters, higher thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) levels, and a longer duration of hyperthyroidism than the non-CTM group (P < 0.05). The VM-PA, VM-CSA, VM-CSA/HT, and VM-CSA/BMI were lower in females than in males (P < 0.05). Free thyroxine (FT4) and TRAb both showed significant negative correlations with VM-MT, VM-MT/HT, VM-CSA, and VM-CSA/HT (P < 0.05). VM-MT/BMI and VM-CSA/HT, respectively, best predicted male and female CTM (AUC = 0.84, 0.85; cutoff ≤ 0.07, < 4.01).


Ultrasound measurement of muscular parameters, especially in the VM, is a valid and feasible way of diagnosing and characterizing possible CTM in hyperthyroidism.