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Open access

Xuan Luo, Tingting Zheng, Chaoming Mao, Xin Dong, Xiao Mou, Chengcheng Xu, Qingyan Lu, Baocui Liu, Shengjun Wang and Yichuan Xiao

Myeloid-related protein 14 (MRP14) is responsible for inflammatory reactions. However, the correlation between MRP14 and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is still not clear. In this study, we examined the status of MRP14 in thyroid tissues and sera of HT patients and explored the mechanism of IL-1β-mediated regulation of MRP14 expression, as well as the effects of MRP14 on pro-inflammatory chemokine secretion in thyroid follicular cells (TFCs), to elucidate the role of MRP14 in HT development. Our results showed dramatically increased MRP14 expression in thyroid tissues and sera from HT patients. In addition, IL-1β significantly promoted the expression of MRP14 in TFCs, which was mediated by activation of the MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathway. More importantly, IL-1β induced the secretion of the chemokines GRO-2, CXCL9 and CCL22, which was dependent on the regulation of MRP14 in TFCs. Therefore, these findings suggested that under pro-inflammatory conditions, TFCs secreted chemokines with the help of MRP14 regulation, which might suggest a potential pathological mechanism of lymphocyte infiltration into the thyroid gland in HT.

Open access

Silan Zheng, Meifeng Tong, Lianqin Dong, Chunmin Du, Xin Zheng, Liying Wang, Peiying Huang, Wei Liu, Mingzhu Lin and Changqin Liu


To explore the independent associations of the new adiposity indices lipid accumulation product (LAP) index, visceral adiposity index (VAI), and product of triglycerides and glucose (TyG) with the risks of hepatic steatosis (HS) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).


This is a cross-sectional study with 101 women with PCOS undergoing controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurement who were recruited from November 2018 to August 2019. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associations of adiposity indices with HS.


Among the 101 PCOS patients, the prevalence rate of HS was 70.3%. The PCOS patients with HS have higher percentage of overweight/obesity status, higher level of aminotransferase (AST and ALT), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), LAP, VAI, TyG, waist circumference (WC), and BMI (P < 0.05). Partial correlation analysis showed LAP, WC and BMI were significantly positively associated with CAP (P < 0.05) after controlling for confounding factors. Besides, BMI, WC, and CAP were gradually elevated with the increase of LAP level. Further, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed adjusted odd ratio (OR) with associated 95% CI (OR (95% CI)) were respectively 1.09 (1.03–1.16) for LAP, 1.14 (1.05–1.23) for WC, 1.28 (1.08–1.51) for BMI, respectively.


The present study demonstrates that in women with PCOS, except for the traditional adiposity indices (WC and BMI), LAP is independently correlated with the risk of HS.

Open access

Jintao Hu, Qingbo Chen, Xiao Ding, Xin Zheng, Xuefeng Tang, Song Li and Hui Yang


Many cancer cells cannot survive without exogenous glutamine (Gln); however, cancer cells expressing glutamine synthetase (GS) do not have this restriction. Previous metabolomics studies have indicated that glutamine metabolism is altered during pituitary tumorigenesis. However, the main role of Gln in pituitary adenoma (PA) pathophysiology remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of GS and the main role of Gln in human PAs.


We used cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry to assess the effect of Gln depletion on three different pituitary cell lines and human primary PA cells. We then investigated the expression level of Gln synthetase (GS) in 24 human PA samples. At last, we used LC-MS/MS to identify the differences in metabolites of PA cells after the blockage of both endogenous and exogenous Gln.


PA cell lines showed different sensitivities to Gln starvation, and the sensitivity is correlated with GS expression level. GS expressed in 21 out of the 24 human PA samples. Furthermore, a positive p53 and ki-67 index was correlated with a higher GS expression level (P < 0.05). Removal of both endogenous and exogenous Gln from GS-expressing PA cells resulted in blockage of nucleotide metabolism and cell cycle arrest.


Our data indicate that GS is needed for PA cells to undergo proliferation during Gln deprivation, and most human PA cells express GS and might have a negative response to exogenous Gln depletion. Moreover, Gln is mainly responsible for nucleotide metabolism in the proliferation of GS-expressing pituitary tumor cells.