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Open access

Tao Yuan, Lanping Jiang, Chen Chen, Xiaoyan Peng, Min Nie, Xuemei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Xuewang Li and Limeng Chen


Impaired glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity have been reported in patients with Gitelman syndrome (GS), but insulin secretion and the related mechanisms are not well understood.

Design and methods

The serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in patients with GS (n = 28), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy individuals (n = 20 in both groups) using an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum and urine sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after an oral glucose load was administered.


The areas under the serum glucose curves were higher in the GS patients than those in the healthy controls (17.4 ± 5.1 mmol·h/L vs 14.5 ± 2.8 mmol·h/L, P = 0.02) but lower than those in the DM patients (24.8 ± 5.3 mmol·h/L, P < 0.001). The areas under the serum insulin curves and the insulin secretion indexes in GS patients were higher than those in DM patients and lower than those in healthy subjects. The insulin secretion-sensitivity index of GS patients was between that of healthy subjects and DM patients, but the insulin sensitivity indices were not different among the three groups. After one hour of glucose administration, the serum potassium level significantly decreased from baseline, and the urinary potassium-to-creatinine ratio increased gradually and peaked at 2 h.


Glucose metabolism and insulin secretion were impaired in GS patients, but insulin sensitivity was comparable between GS patients and patients with type 2 DM. After administration of an oral glucose load, the plasma potassium level decreased in GS patients due to the increased excretion of potassium in the urine.

Open access

Qianqian Pang, Yuping Xu, Xuan Qi, Yan Jiang, Ou Wang, Mei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Ling Qin and Weibo Xia


Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a rare genetic multi-organic disease characterized by digital clubbing, periostosis and pachydermia. Two genes, HPGD and SLCO2A1, which encodes 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and prostaglandin transporter (PGT), respectively, have been reported to be related to PHO. Deficiency of aforementioned two genes leads to failure of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) degradation and thereby elevated levels of PGE2. PGE2 plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Studies revealed a tumor suppressor activity of 15-PGDH in tumors, such as lung, bladder and breast cancers. However, to date, no HPGD-mutated PHO patients presenting concomitant tumor has been documented. In the present study, we reported the first case of HPGD-mutated PHO patient with soft tissue giant tumors at lower legs and evaluated the efficacy of selective COX-2 inhibitor (etoricoxib) treatment in the patient.


In this study, we summarized the clinical data, collected the serum and urine samples for biochemical test and analyzed the HPGD gene in our patient.


A common HPGD mutation c.310_311delCT was identified in the patient. In addition to typical clinical features (digital clubbing, periostosis and pachydermia), the patient demonstrated a new clinical manifestation, a giant soft tissue tumor on the left lower leg which has not been reported in HPGD-mutated PHO patient before. After 6-month treatment with etoricoxib, the patient showed decreased PGE2 levels and improved PHO-related symptoms. Though the soft tissue tumor persisted, it seemed to be controlled under the etoricoxib treatment.


This finding expanded the clinical spectrum of PHO and provided unique insights into the HPGD-mutated PHO.