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Early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in subjects with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes

Xiaoli Liu, Lanxiang Liu, Rui Wang, Xiaojiao Jia, Binbin Liu, Ning Ma, and Qiang Lu


We aimed to investigate early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in populations with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes.

Materials and methods

A total of 148 participants who did not have diabetes mellitus were assigned to three groups through an oral glucose tolerance test: the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group; the impaired glucose regulation, also known as prediabetes group and the new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The insulin resistance index was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An ELISA was used to determine the level of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). An arteriosclerosis detector was used to measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). The baPWV, ABI, and FGF21 were used to assess early arteriosclerosis.


Significant differences in age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), 2-h insulin (2hINS), and HOMA-IR were found between the NGT group and the prediabetes and new-onset diabetes groups. All of the above, except 2hINS, showed an increasing trend. Moreover, the FGF21 was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the NGT group. The baPWV was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the other two groups, but no significant difference was noted in the ABI. Age, SBP, diastolic blood pressure, FPG, 2hPG, and FGF21 were positively correlated with the baPWV. In addition, FPG, SBP, FGF21, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for the baPWV.


Patients with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes may have more significant early arteriosclerosis. The blood glucose level and insulin resistance index may be independent risk factors for early arteriosclerosis.

Open access

Changes in clinical patterns of Chinese patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in the past 12 years: a single-center experience

Yuan Liu, Siyi Guo, Jinsong Wu, Rongai Wang, Jinbo Liu, Yan Liu, Bin Lv, Nan Liu, Ling Jiang, and Xiaoli Zhang

The clinical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) differs between patients from developed and developing countries. In China, the clinical pattern has changed over the past few decades. Our aim was to elucidate general changes in the clinical characteristics of PHPT from 2010 to 2021. We enrolled 343 patients with PHPT at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China, from January 2010 to May 2021, including both surgical and non-surgical patients. Patients were divided into two subgroups, 2010–2016 (group A, n  = 152) and 2017–2021 (group B, n  = 191), based on the time span. We compared clinical manifestations and laboratory result data between these two groups. The mean patient age was 52.59 ± 13.55 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2.54. Of the 343 patients, 183 (53.35%) had symptomatic PHPT; bone pain, urolithiasis, and fatigue were the most common symptoms. Post-operative pathology showed that 96.20% of the patients had parathyroid adenoma, whereas 2.41% had parathyroid carcinoma. Great changes occurred between 2010 and 2021; the percentage of patients with asymptomatic PHPT (aPHPT) increased from 36.18% in group A to 54.97% in group B. Moreover, patients in group B showed significantly lower serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and urinary phosphate levels but higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than those in group A. Clinical presentations in group B were also milder. In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of Chinese PHPT patients changed dramatically from 2010 to 2021, with asymptomatic PHPT (aPHPT becoming the predominant type over the last 3 years.

Open access

The significance of short-term preoperative calcium and activated vitamin D3 supplementation in thyroidectomy: a randomized trial and prospectively study

Xiaoli Jin, Jiankang Shen, Tao Liu, Ru Zhou, Xunbo Huang, Tianxiang Wang, Weize Wu, Mingliang Wang, Rongli Xie, and Jianming Yuan

Objective: To explore the effects of preoperative calcium and activated vitamin D3 supplementation on post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and hypo-parathyroid hormone-emia (hypo-PTHemia).

Methods: A total of 209 patients were randomly divided into control group (CG) and experimental group (EG). Oral calcium and activated vitamin D3 supplementation were preoperatively administered to EG, whereas a placebo was administered to CG. Data on serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations before operation, on postoperative day 1 (POPD1), at postoperative week 3 (POPW3), and the length of postoperative hospitalization were collected.

Results: The serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH concentrations, as well as the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia and hypo-PTHemia, did not significantly differ between EG and CG. Subgroup analysis revealed that the serum calcium concentrations of the experimental bilateral thyroidectomy subgroup (eBTS) on POPD1 and POPW3 were higher than that of the control bilateral thyroidectomy subgroup (cBTS) (P < 0.05); The reduction of serum calcium in eBTS on POPD1 and POPW3 was less than those in cBTS (P < 0.05). However, significant differences were not observed between the unilateral thyroidectomy subgroups (UTS) (P > 0.05). Moreover, the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia in cBTS on POPD1 was significantly higher than that in eBTS (65.9% VS 41.7%) (P <0.05). The length of hospitalization in cBTS (3.55±1.89 days) was significantly longer than that (2.79±1.15 days) in eBTS (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Short-term preoperative prophylactic oral calcium and activated vitamin D3 supplementation could effectively reduce the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia and decrease the length of postoperative hospitalization in patients who underwent bilateral thyroidectomy.