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Yi Jia School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Yanan Yang School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Jing Qu School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Lijun Yin School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Xiaohui Wang School of Health and Exercise, The Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China

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Adipokine chemerin plays important roles in disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism of obesity and obesity-related diseases, and exercise-induced improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism is closely related to the decrease of chemerin, but the mechanisms by which chemerin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism remain unclarified. Hypotestosterone induces male obesity and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism through androgen receptor (AR) and its target genes: glucose and lipid metabolism-related molecules (including FOXO1, PEPCK, PGC-1α, and SCD1). Recently, the link between them has been reported that chemerin modulated the secretion of androgen. In this study, global chemerin knockout (chemerin (−/−)) mice were established to demonstrate the roles of chemerin in regulating blood glucose and blood lipid of mice under diet (high-fat (HFD) and normal diet) and exercise interventions and then to explore its mechanisms (AR – glucose and lipid metabolism enzymes). We found that the blood lipid and adipocyte size were low accompanied by the improvements in the levels of serum testosterone, gastrocnemius AR, and gastrocnemius FOXO1, SCD1, and PGC-1α in HFD chemerin (−/−) mice, but exercise-induced improvements of these indicators in HFD WT mice were attenuated or abolished in HFD chemerin (−/−) mice. In conclusion, the decrease of chemerin improved the blood lipid profile of HFD male mice at sedentary and exercise states, mediated partly by the increases of testosterone and AR to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism enzymes. To our knowledge, it is the first report that chemerin’s regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism might be mediated by testosterone and AR in vivo.

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Xiaohui Weng School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China
Weihai Institute for Bionics, Jilin University, Weihai, China

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Gehong Li School of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun, China

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Ziwei Liu Department of endocrinology, Jinshan Branch of Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China

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Rui Liu Department of VIP Unit, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China

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Zhaoyang Liu Digital Intelligent Cockpit Department, Intelligent Connected Vehicle Development Institute, China FAW Group Co LTD, Changchun, China

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Songyang Wang Digital Intelligent Cockpit Department, Intelligent Connected Vehicle Development Institute, China FAW Group Co LTD, Changchun, China

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Shishun Zhao School of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun, China

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Xiaotong Ma School of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun, China

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Zhiyong Chang Weihai Institute for Bionics, Jilin University, Weihai, China
College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China
Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, China

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Studies have found differences in the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the breath of diabetics and healthy people, prompting attention to the use of devices such as electronic noses to detect diabetes. In this study, we explored the design of a non-invasive diabetes preliminary screening system that uses a homemade electronic nose sensor array to detect respiratory gas markers. In the algorithm part, two feature extraction methods were adopted, gradient boosting method was used to select promising feature subset, and then particle swarm optimization algorithm was introduced to extract 24 most effective features, which reduces the number of sensors by 56% and saves the system cost. Respiratory samples were collected from 120 healthy subjects and 120 diabetic subjects to assess the system performance. Random forest algorithm was used to classify and predict electronic nose data, and the accuracy can reach 93.33%. Experimental results show that on the premise of ensuring accuracy, the system has low cost and small size after the number of sensors is optimized, and it is easy to install on in-car. It provides a more feasible method for the preliminary screening of diabetes on in-car and can be used as an assistant to the existing detection methods.

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Nannan Bian Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Xiaomeng Sun Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Biao Zhou Departments of General Surgery and Obesity and Metabolic Disease Center, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China

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Lin Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Qiu Wang Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Yu An Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Xiaohui Li Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Yinhui Li Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Jia Liu Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Hua Meng Departments of General Surgery and Obesity and Metabolic Disease Center, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China

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Guang Wang Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Objective

Bariatric surgery has become the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. Increasing evidence showed that bariatric surgery can alleviate insulin resistance and influence thyroid function. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in thyroid function and adipose tissue insulin resistance (adipo-IR) after bariatric surgery.

Methods

A total of 287 non-diabetic participants with regular thyroid function were recruited and divided into the lean, overweight and obese groups. Among them, 50 morbidly obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery.

Results

The obese group had a higher level of adipo-IR, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), FT3/free thyroxine (FT4) and metabolism disorders than the lean and overweight groups. BMI was correlated with TSH, FT3, FT3/FT4 and adipo-IR (r = 0.309, 0.315, 0.322 and 0.651, respectively, all P < 0.001). Adipo-IR was significantly correlated with TSH (r = 0.402, P < 0.001), FT3 (r = 0.309, P < 0.001), and FT3/FT4 (r = 0.228, P < 0.05). Bariatric surgery resulted in a sharp decline in BMI, adipo-IR, TSH, FT3 and FT3/FT4 levels, meanwhile, metabolic disorders improved. The decrease in BMI after bariatric surgery was significantly correlated with reductions in adipo-IR (r = 0.577, P < 0.001) and TSH (r = 0.401, P = 0.005). Interestingly, the fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, adipo-IR and TSH in the higher TSH group decreased more remarkably than in the lower TSH group.

Conclusion

Obese individuals with higher TSH levels had an obvious metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery.

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Zhenzhen Wang Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Xiangying Zhu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Xiaohui Yu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Haixia Guan Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Lei Zhao Department of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Yixia Zhang Department of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Yuge Li Department of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Liang Sang Department of Ultrasonography, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Yuchen Han Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Yushu Li Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Zhongyan Shan Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Weiping Teng Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

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Purpose:

To determine the diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results in identifying the risk factors of malignancy, we analyzed the thyroid nodules of patients who underwent thyroidectomy and compared preoperative ATA classifications with FNA results.

Methods:

We retrospectively analyzed 274 nodules of 196 patients who underwent ultrasonography, FNA and thyroidectomy. Histopathological findings of thyroid nodules were considered as the Au standard in the analysis of the diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and FNA results. Univariate analysis and binary multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to identify the ultrasound features associated with malignancy.

Results:

The overall malignancy rate of 274 nodules was 41.6%. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for the ATA classification and FNA results were 0.88 and 0.878, respectively (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the ATA classification were 86 and 86.9%, whereas those of FNA results were 68.5 and 91.4%, respectively. The specificity (98.7%) and sensitivity (94.3%) increased after the combined use of the ATA classification and FNA results. Taller-than-wide shape, microcalcifications, hypoechogenicity and irregular margins were independent risk factors for malignancy. Microcalcifications had the highest OR (7.58), and taller-than-wide shape had the highest specificity in BSRTC I, II, III and IV cytology.

Conclusion:

The diagnostic efficiency of the ATA classification and FNA results in identifying malignant nodules was high, and the use of both criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy. Taller-than-wide shape, microcalcifications, hypoechogenicity and irregular margins were independent risk factors for malignancy.

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Fang Lv Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Xiaoling Cai Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Chu Lin Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Tianpei Hong Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China

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Xiaomei Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Peking University International Hospital, Beijing, China

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Zhufeng Wang Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Guanganmen Hospital, Beijing, China

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Huifang Xing Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Beijing Mentougou Hospital, Beijing, China

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Guizhi Zong Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Beijing Jingmei Group General hospital, Beijing, China

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Juming Lu Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China

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Xiaohui Guo Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China

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Jing Wu Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Leili Gao Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Xianghai Zhou Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Xueyao Han Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Linong Ji Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China

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Aims

To estimate the sex differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity aged 20–89 in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods

811,264 patients with T2D from six hospital-based, cross-sectional studies, and 46,053 subjects from the general population were included in our analysis. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity were calculated in each sex.

Results

In patients with T2D, the standardized prevalence of underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), overweight (24 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2), and general obesity (BMI ≥28 kg/m2) were 2.2%, 43.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. Similar trend patterns of the prevalence of underweight and overweight were observed in general and T2D population, in males and females with T2D (all P for trend <0.01). In patients with T2D, patients at a younger age and older age were more likely to be underweight. The prevalence of overweight increased first, then stabilized or decreased with age. However, different trend patterns of the prevalence of obesity in males and females were found. In males, the prevalence of obesity decreased first, and then stabilized after 60 years of age. In females, the prevalence of obesity decreased first, then increased after 50 years of age. In the general population, the prevalence of obesity increased with age in females, while, the trend of prevalence of obesity with age in males was not obvious.

Conclusion

Different trends in the prevalence of obesity with age in different sex were found in Chinese patients with T2D.

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Yuerong Yan Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Lili You Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Xiaoyi Wang Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Zhuo Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Feng Li Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Hongshi Wu Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Muchao Wu Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Jin Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Jiayun Wu Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Caixia Chen Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Xiaohui Li Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Biwen Xia Department of Endocrinology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China

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Mingtong Xu Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Li Yan Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Objectives

A variety of factors differed between rural and urban areas may further influence iodine status and thyroid structure. Hence, this study compared iodine nutrition, the prevalence of thyroid goiter, and nodules between rural and urban residents in Guangzhou, a southern coastal city of China.

Methods

A total of 1211 rural residents and 1305 urban residents were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire regarding personal characteristics was administered. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was examined. Ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed to evaluate thyroid goiter and nodules. Multiple logistic analysis was used to identify the potential associated factors.

Results

The median UIC was significantly lower in rural residents than in urban residents (120.80 μg/L vs 136.00 μg/L, P < 0.001). Although the coverage rate of iodized salt was much higher in rural residents than in urban residents (99.59% vs 97.29%, P < 0.001), the percentages of seafood intake (8.60% vs 29.29%, P < 0.001), iodine-containing drug consumption (0.33% vs 1.24%, P = 0.011), and iodine contrast medium injection (0.58% vs 1.87%, P = 0.004) were lower in rural residents than in urban residents. Both the prevalence of thyroid goiters and nodules was significantly higher in rural residents than in urban residents (goiter: 8.06% vs 1.20%, P < 0.001; nodules: 61.89% vs 55.04%, P = 0.023). Living in rural areas was associated with thyroid goiter (OR 5.114, 95% CI 2.893–9.040, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

There were differences in iodine nutrition and the prevalence of thyroid goiter and nodules in rural and urban residents in Guangzhou. Differentiated and specialized monitoring is recommended in our area.

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