After a 12-week feeding trial, the glucose tolerance test was performed in Megalobrama amblycephala to evaluate the effects of metformin on the metabolic responses of glycolipids. Plasma insulin peaked at 2 h, then decreased to the basal value at 8–12 h post-injection. Plasma triglyceride levels and liver glycogen contents of the control group was decreased significantly during the first 2 and 1 h, respectively. Then, they returned to basal values at 12 h. During the whole sampling period, the high-carbohydrate groups had significantly higher levels of plasma metabolites and liver glycogen than those of the control group, and metformin supplementation enhanced these changes (except insulin levels). Glucose administration lowered the transcriptions of ampk α1, ampk α2, pepck, g6pase, fbpase, cpt IA and aco, the phosphorylation of Ampk α and the activities of the gluconeogenic enzymes during the first 2–4 h, while the opposite was true of glut 2, gs, gk, pk, accα and fas. High-carbohydrate diets significantly increased the transcriptions of ampk α1, ampk α2, glut 2, gs, gk, pk, accα and fas, the phosphorylation of Ampk α and the activities of the glycolytic enzymes during the whole sampling period, while the opposite was true for the remaining indicators. Furthermore, metformin significantly upregulated the aforementioned indicators (except accα and fas) and the transcriptions of cpt IA and aco. Overall, metformin benefits the glucose homeostasis of Megalobrama amblycephala fed high-carbohydrate diets through the activation of Ampk and the stimulation of glycolysis, glycogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, while depressing gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis.
Chao Xu, Xiang-Fei Li, Hong-Yan Tian, Hua-Juan Shi, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kenneth Prudence Abasubong and Wen-Bin Liu
Xiang Hu, Qiao Zhang, Tian-Shu Zeng, Jiao-Yue Zhang, Jie Min, Sheng-Hua Tian, Hantao Huang, Miaomiao Peng, Nan Zhang, Mengjiao Li, Qing Wan, Fei Xiao, Yan Chen, Chaodong Wu and Lu-Lu Chen
To explore the influence by not performing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in Han Chinese over 40 years.
Overall, 6682 participants were included in the prospective cohort study and were followed up for 3 years.
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load plasma glucose (2h-PG), FPG and 2h-PG (OGTT), and HbA1c testing using World Health Organization (WHO) or American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were employed for strategy analysis.
The prevalence of diabetes is 12.4% (95% CI: 11.6–13.3), while the prevalence of prediabetes is 34.1% (95% CI: 32.9–35.3) and 56.5% (95% CI: 55.2–57.8) using WHO and ADA criteria, respectively. 2h-PG determined more diabetes individuals than FPG and HbA1c. The testing cost per true positive case of OGTT is close to FPG and less than 2h-PG or HbA1c. FPG, 2h-PG and HbA1c strategies would increase costs from complications for false-positive (FP) or false-negative (FN) results compared with OGTT. Moreover, the least individuals identified as normal by OGTT at baseline developed (pre)diabetes, and the most prediabetes individuals identified by HbA1c or FPG using ADA criteria developed diabetes.
The prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance and isolated 2-h post-load diabetes were high, and the majority of individuals with (pre)diabetes were undetected in Chinese Han population. Not performing an OGTT results in underdiagnosis, inadequate developing risk assessment and probable cost increases of (pre)diabetes in Han Chinese over 40 years and great consideration should be given to OGTT in detecting (pre)diabetes in this population. Further population-based prospective cohort study of longer-term effects is necessary to investigate the risk assessment and cost of (pre)diabetes.