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Open access

Meihua Jin, Woo Kyung Lee, Mi-Hyeon You, Ahreum Jang, Sheue-yann Cheng, Won Gu Kim, Min Ji Jeon, and Yu-Mi Lee


Catabolism of serine via serine hydroxymethyltransferase2 (SHMT2) through the mitochondrial one-carbon unit pathway is important in tumorigenesis. Therefore, SHMT2 may play a role in thyroid cancer.


Thyroid tissue samples and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were used to evaluate SHMT2 expression in thyroid tissues and the association with clinical outcomes.


SHMT2 protein expression was evaluated in thyroid tissues consisting of 52 benign nodules, 129 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and matched normal samples, and 20 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). ATCs presented the highest (95.0%) positivity of SMHT2 protein expression. PTCs showed the second highest (73.6%) positivity of SHMT2 expression, which was significantly higher than that of benign nodules (19.2%, P = 0.016) and normal thyroid tissues (0%, P < 0.001). Analysis of TCGA data showed that SHMT2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was significantly higher in tumors than in normal tissues (P < 0.001). When we classified thyroid cancer into high and low groups according to SHMT2 mRNA expression levels, the thyroid differentiation score for the high SHMT2 group was significantly lower than that of the low SHMT2 group (P < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between SHMT2 mRNA expression and the stemness index (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). The high SHMT2 group had more advanced TNM stages and shorter progression-free survival rates than the low SHMT2 group (P < 0.01 and P = 0.007, respectively).


SHMT2 expression is higher in thyroid cancers than normal or benign tissues and is associated with de-differentiation and poor clinical outcomes. Thus, SHMT2 might be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for thyroid cancer.

Open access

Hyun-Ah Kim, Jihye Choi, Chan Sub Park, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Jin Kyung Lee, Woo Chul Noh, and the ASTRRA trial investigators

In the era of precision medicine, the prediction of ovarian function recovery from chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea using feasible biological markers may be helpful to optimise the treatment strategy for young patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of post-chemotherapy biological markers for predicting the recovery of ovarian function in breast cancer patients of the ASTRRA trial, with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea. Using data of 82 participants from a single institution in the ASTRRA trial, the post-chemotherapy serum levels of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), oestradiol, inhibin B and other clinical factors associated with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea were evaluated. Recovery of ovarian function was defined by the resumption of menstruation manifested by vaginal bleeding. Fifty-two patients regained menstruation within 55 months after enrolment. In univariate analysis, <40 years of age (P = 0.009), oestradiol ≥37 pg/mL (P = 0.003) or AMH ≥800 pg/mL (P = 0.026) were associated with recovery of menstruation. On multivariate analysis, oestradiol (hazard ratio: 3.171, 95% CI: 1.306–7.699, P = 0.011) and AMH (hazard ratio: 2.853, 95% CI: 1.011–8.046, P = 0.048) remained as significant independent predictors for resumption of menstruation. The diagnostic accuracy of age, oestradiol and AMH in predicting the resumption of menstruation was 38.3, 23.3 and 86.7%, respectively. In conclusion, post-chemotherapy AMH level might be a relatively accurate predictor of the recovery of ovarian function, presented by resumption of menstruation in breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea.