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Open access

Qian Yang, Wencai Ke, Fanfan Pan, Xinmei Huang, Jun Liu, and Bingbing Zha


Neutropenia is a complication of Graves' disease (GD), but there is currently no means by which to predict its occurrence. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for the development of neutropenia in untreated GD.


This was a retrospective cohort study. Between January 1, 2010, and July 31, 2020, 1000 patients with new-onset or relapsing GD without treatment were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: neutropenia group (neutrophil count < 2 × 109/L) and non-neutropenia group (neutrophil count ≥ 2 × 109/L). Clinical characteristics of subjects were compared between the two groups, and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine risk factors for neutropenia. To further explore the correlation of radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) with neutropenia, subjects were first classified according to quartile of 3 h RAIU and 24 h RAIU prior to logistic regression analysis.


Of all patients recruited, 293 (29.6%) were diagnosed with neutropenia. Compared with non-neutropenic patients, those with neutropenia had a higher level of free thyroxine (FT4) (56.64 ± 31.80 vs 47.64 ± 39.64, P = 0.001), 3 h RAIU (55.64 ± 17.04 vs 49.80 ± 17.21, P < 0.001) and 24 h RAIU (67.38 ± 12.54 vs 64.38 ± 13.58, P < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that FT4, 3 h RAIU, 24 h RAIU, creatinine, and low-density lipoprotein were risk factors for development of neutropenia in GD. After adjusting for confounding factors of age, BMI, and sex, we determined that 3 h RAIU and 24 h RAIU (Model 1: OR = 1.021, 95% CI: 1.008–1.033, P = 0.001; Model 2: OR = 1.023, 95% CI: 1.007–1.039, P = 0.004), but not FT4, were associated with the development of neutropenia.


RAIU is associated with neutropenia in patients with untreated GD.

Open access

Leqi He, Xiaoying Li, Zaoping Chen, Wei Wang, Kai Wang, Xinmei Huang, Qian Yang, Wencai Ke, Jun Liu, and Bingbing Zha


To explore the relationship between estradiol (E2) and thyroid function during the second trimester of pregnancy and the effect of E2 on sodium iodide transporter (NIS) expression in cultured thyroid cells.

Materials and methods

We analyzed relationships between E2 and thyroid function in 196 pregnant women during the second trimester. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed between E2 and thyroid function. The human thyroid Nthy-ori3-1 cells were cultured in different E2 concentrations, and the mRNA levels of NIS, estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and ER-β were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Their protein levels were assessed by western blot.


E2 was positively correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and negatively correlated with free thyroxine (FT4) (P < 0.05). When we corrected for age, BMI, alanine aminotransferase, and serum creatinine, E2 was still negatively correlated with FT4 (P < 0.5) during the second trimester. In Nthy-ori3-1 cells treated with 10 nM E2, NIS and ER-β mRNA levels were significantly reduced, while ER-α mRNA level was not altered (P > 0.5). Moreover, 10 nM E2 significantly decreased protein levels of ER-β, phosphorylated versions of protein kinase A (p-PKA), phosphorylated versions of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB), and NIS, while treatment with the ER-β inhibitor restored the expression of p-PKA, p-CREB, and NIS (P < 0.05).


High concentration of E2 has a negative correlation with FT4. High concentration of E2 can inhibit the NIS expression through the ER-β-mediated pathway, which may cause thyroid hormone fluctuations during pregnancy.