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Open access

David S Mathiesen, Jonatan I Bagger, Katrine B Hansen, Anders E Junker, Astrid Plamboeck, Signe Harring, Thomas Idorn, Mads Hornum, Jens J Holst, Anna E Jonsson, Torben Hansen, Tina Vilsbøll, Asger Lund, and Filip K Knop

The T allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 is a common genetic variant associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), possibly by modulation of incretin action. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele on the incretin effect and other glucometabolic parameters in normal glucose tolerant individuals (NGT) and participants with T2D. The rs7903146 variant was genotyped in cohorts of 61 NGT individuals (23 were heterozygous (CT) or homozygous (TT) T allele carriers) and 43 participants with T2D (20 with CT/TT). Participants were previously examined by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a subsequent isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI). The incretin effect was assessed by quantification of the difference in integrated beta cell secretory responses during the OGTT and IIGI. Glucose and hormonal levels were measured during experimental days, and from these, indices of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated. No genotype-specific differences in the incretin effect were observed in the NGT group (P = 0.70) or the T2D group (P = 0.68). NGT T allele carriers displayed diminished glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response during OGTT (P = 0.01) while T allele carriers with T2D were characterized by lower C-peptide AUC after OGTT (P = 0.04) and elevated glucose AUC after OGTT (P = 0.04). In conclusion, our findings do not exclude that this specific TCF7L2 variant increases the risk of developing T2D via diminished incretin effect, but genotype-related defects were not detectable in these cohorts.

Open access

Kim K B Clemmensen, Jonas S Quist, Dorte Vistisen, Daniel R Witte, Anna Jonsson, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Torsten Lauritzen, Marit E Jørgensen, Signe Torekov, and Kristine Færch

Fasting duration has been associated with lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher 2-h post-load levels, and research has indicated an adverse effect of ‘weekend behavior’ on human metabolism. We investigated associations of fasting duration and weekday of examination with glucose, insulin, glucagon and incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This cross-sectional study is based on data from the ADDITION-PRO study, where 2082 individuals attended a health examination including an OGTT. Linear regression analysis was applied to study the associations of overnight fasting duration and day of the week with glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to an OGTT. We found that a 1 h longer fasting duration was associated with 1.7% (95% CI: 0.8,2.5) higher 2-h glucose levels, as well as a 3.0% (95% CI: 1.3,4.7) higher GIP and 2.3% (95% CI: 0.3,4.4) higher GLP-1 response. Fasting insulin levels were 20.6% (95% CI: 11.2,30.7) higher on Mondays compared to the other weekdays, with similar fasting glucose levels (1.7%, 95% CI: 0.0,3.4). In this study, longer overnight fasting duration was associated with a worsening of glucose tolerance and increased incretin response to oral glucose. We found higher fasting insulin levels on Mondays compared to the other days of the week, potentially indicating a worsened glucose regulation after the weekend.

Open access

Charlotte Janus, Dorte Vistisen, Hanan Amadid, Daniel R Witte, Torsten Lauritzen, Søren Brage, Anne-Louise Bjerregaard, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Marit E Jørgensen, Oluf Pedersen, Kristine Færch, and Signe S Torekov

Rationale

The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) decreases blood glucose and appetite. Greater physical activity (PA) is associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. While acute exercise may increase glucose-induced response of GLP-1, it is unknown how habitual PA affects GLP-1 secretion. We hypothesised that habitual PA associates with greater glucose-induced GLP-1 responses in overweight individuals.

Methods

Cross-sectional analysis of habitual PA levels and GLP-1 concentrations in 1326 individuals (mean (s.d.) age 66 (7) years, BMI 27.1 (4.5) kg/m2) from the ADDITION-PRO cohort. Fasting and oral glucose-stimulated GLP-1 responses were measured using validated radioimmunoassay. PA was measured using 7-day combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring. From this, energy expenditure (PAEE; kJ/kg/day) and fractions of time spent in activity intensities (h/day) were calculated. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF; mL O2/kg/min) was calculated using step tests. Age-, BMI- and insulin sensitivity-adjusted associations between PA and GLP-1, stratified by sex, were evaluated by linear regression analysis.

Results

In 703 men, fasting GLP-1 concentrations were 20% lower (95% CI: −33; −3%, P = 0.02) for every hour of moderate-intensity PA performed. Higher CRF and PAEE were associated with 1–2% lower fasting GLP-1 (P = 0.01). For every hour of moderate-intensity PA, the glucose-stimulated GLP-1 response was 16% greater at peak 30 min (1; 33%, P rAUC0-30 = 0.04) and 20% greater at full response (3; 40%, P rAUC0-120 = 0.02). No associations were found in women who performed PA 22 min/day vs 32 min/day for men.

Conclusion

Moderate-intensity PA is associated with lower fasting and greater glucose-induced GLP-1 responses in overweight men, possibly contributing to improved glucose and appetite regulation with increased habitual PA.