Growing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a key role in processes involved in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) pathogenesis, including immune system functions and beta-cell metabolism and death. Although dysregulated miRNA profiles have been identified in T1DM patients, results are inconclusive; with only few miRNAs being consistently dysregulated among studies. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the subject, followed by bioinformatic analysis, to point out which miRNAs are dysregulated in T1DM-related tissues and in which pathways they act. PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify all studies that compared miRNA expressions between T1DM patients and non-diabetic controls. Search was completed in August, 2017. Those miRNAs consistently dysregulated in T1DM-related tissues were submitted to bioinformatic analysis, using six databases of miRNA–target gene interactions to retrieve their putative targets and identify potentially affected pathways under their regulation. Thirty-three studies were included in the systematic review: 19 of them reported miRNA expressions in human samples, 13 in murine models and one in both human and murine samples. Among 278 dysregulated miRNAs reported in these studies, 25.9% were reported in at least 2 studies; however, only 48 of them were analyzed in tissues directly related to T1DM pathogenesis (serum/plasma, pancreas and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)). Regarding circulating miRNAs, 11 were consistently dysregulated in T1DM patients compared to controls: miR-21-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-100-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-181a-5p, miR-210-5p, miR-342-3p, miR-375 and miR-1275. The bioinformatic analysis retrieved a total of 5867 validated and 2979 predicted miRNA–target interactions for human miRNAs. In functional enrichment analysis of miRNA target genes, 77 KEGG terms were enriched for more than one miRNA. These miRNAs are involved in pathways related to immune system function, cell survival, cell proliferation and insulin biosynthesis and secretion. In conclusion, eleven circulating miRNAs seem to be dysregulated in T1DM patients in different studies, being potential circulating biomarkers of this disease.