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Open access

Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Anne-Marie Coady, Eric S Kilpatrick and Stephen L Atkin

Background

There is an increased risk of developing T2DM in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and there is evidence that statins improve metabolic parameters in these patients. However, there are some data to show that statins increase the risk of incipient diabetes.

Materials and methods

We have previously shown that 12 weeks of atorvastatin improves insulin resistance when measured using HOMA-IR. This post hoc analysis was designed to look at the effect of atorvastatin on pancreatic β cell function using HOMA-β in the same study. In this randomised, double-blind placebo controlled study, 40 medication-naïve patients with PCOS were randomised to either atorvastatin 20 mg daily or placebo for 3 months. A 3-month extension study for both groups of patients was undertaken with metformin 1500 mg daily after completing initial 3 months of atorvastatin or placebo.

Results

There was a significant reduction in HOMA-β (240 ± 3.2 vs 177 ± 2.3; P value <0.01) after 12 weeks of atorvastatin treatment, which was maintained by metformin in the subsequent 12 weeks. There were no changes in HOMA-β after the placebo or after subsequent metformin treatment.

There was no linear correlation between reduction in HOMA-β with improvement of free androgen index (FAI) (r 2 = 0.02; P = 0.72), testosterone (r 2 = 0.13; P = 0.49), SHBG (r 2 = 0.22; P = 0.48), hsCRP (r 2 = 0.19; P = 0.64), triglycerides (r 2 = 0.09; P = 0.12), total cholesterol (r 2 = 0.11; P = 0.32) or LDL-C (r 2 = 0.19; P = 0.38).

Conclusion

Treatment with atorvastatin for 12 weeks in women with PCOS significantly reduced HOMA-β. This could be potentially due to fall in β-cell requirement with improvement of insulin resistance rather than a reduction of β-cell function.

Open access

Zeeshan Javed, Maria Papageorgiou, Leigh A Madden, Alan S Rigby, Eric S Kilpatrick, Stephen L Atkin and Thozhukat Sathyapalan

Context: Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are novel, surrogate biomarkers of endothelial function and have been shown to be elevated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It remains poorly understood how pharmacological options for managing PCOS affect EMP levels.

Objective: To characterise and compare the effects of empagliflozin vs. metformin on the circulating levels of EMPs in overweight/ obese women with PCOS.

Methods: This was a randomised, comparative, 12-week single-centre trial conducted at the Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Centre, Hull, UK. This analysis includes data from thirty-nine overweight/obese women with PCOS who completed the study and were randomised to empagliflozin (15 mg/day) (n = 19) or metformin (1500 mg/day) (n = 20). Blood samples were collected at baseline and 12 weeks after treatment and analysed for specific surface proteins expressed by circulating EMPs using flow cytometry.

Results: In the empagliflozin group, ICAM-1 (p=0.006), E-selectin (p=0.016) and VCAM-1 (p=0.001) EMPs increased significantly following 12 weeks of treatment, but no changes were seen in PECAM-1 (p=0.93) or endoglin (p=0.13) EMPs. In the metformin group, VCAM-1 EMPs (p<0.001) increased significantly after 12 weeks of treatment, whereas all other EMPs remained unchanged. When data were expressed as the percentage change from baseline in each group, no significant differences were seen between groups for any biomarker (p-values from 0.22 to 0.80).

Conclusions: Short-term administration of empagliflozin and metformin in overweight/obese women with PCOS appear to increase EMPs expressed by endothelial cells during their activation.