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Open access

Renata C Scalco, Ericka B Trarbach, Edoarda V A Albuquerque, Thais K Homma, Thais H Inoue-Lima, Mirian Y Nishi, Berenice B Mendonca, and Alexander A L Jorge

Most patients with Turner syndrome (TS) need hormone replacement therapy because of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism; individual outcomes, however, are highly variable. Our objective was to assess the influence of five estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) polymorphisms (rs543650, rs1038304, rs2046210, rs2234693 and rs9340799) on adult height, breast development, uterine volume and bone mineral density (BMD). We studied 91 TS patients from a tertiary hospital using adult estrogen dose. In our group, ESR1 rs2234693 was associated with femoral neck and total hip BMD, and it accounted for around 10% of BMD variability in both sites (P < 0.01). Patients homozygous for C allele in this polymorphism had significantly lower femoral neck BMD (0.699 ± 0.065 g/cm2 vs 0.822 ± 0.113 g/cm2, P = 0.008) and total hip BMD (0.777 ± 0.118 g/cm2 vs 0.903 ± 0.098 g/cm2, P = 0.009) than patients homozygous for T allele. The other four ESR1 polymorphisms were not able to predict any of the above estrogen therapy outcomes in an isolated manner. Patients homozygous for the haplotype GCG formed by polymorphisms rs543650, rs2234693 and rs9340799 had an even more significantly lower femoral neck BMD (0.666 ± 0.049 vs 0.820 ± 0.105 g/cm2, P = 0.0047) and total hip BMD (0.752 ± 0.093 vs 0.908 ± 0.097 g/cm2, P = 0.0029) than patients homozygous for haplotypes with a T allele in rs2234693. In conclusion, homozygosity for C allele in ESR1 rs2234693 and/or for GCG haplotype appears to be associated with lower femoral neck and total hip BMD. We believe that the identification of polymorphisms related to estrogen outcomes may contribute to individualization of treatment in TS.

Open access

Nathalia Liberatoscioli Menezes Andrade, Mariana Ferreira de Assis Funari, Alexsandra Christianne Malaquias, Paulo Ferrez Collett-Solberg, Nathalia L R A Gomes, Renata Scalco, Naiara Castelo Branco Dantas, Raissa C Rezende, Angelica M F P Tiburcio, Micheline A R Souza, Bruna L Freire, Ana C V Krepischi, Carlos Alberto Longui, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Ivo J P Arnhold, Alexander A L Jorge, and Gabriela Andrade Vasques


Most children with short stature remain without an etiologic diagnosis after extensive clinical and laboratory evaluation and are classified as idiopathic short stature (ISS). This study aimed to determine the diagnostic yield of a multigene analysis in children classified as ISS.

Design and methods

We selected 102 children with ISS and performed the genetic analysis as part of the initial investigation. We developed customized targeted panel sequencing, including all genes already implicated in the isolated short-stature phenotype. Rare and deleterious single nucleotide or copy number variants were assessed by bioinformatic tools.


We identified 20 heterozygous pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) genetic variants in 17 of 102 patients (diagnostic yield = 16.7%). Three patients had more than one P/LP genetic alteration. Most of the findings were in genes associated with the growth plate differentiation: IHH (n  = 4), SHOX (n  = 3), FGFR3 (n  = 2), NPR2 (n  = 2), ACAN (n  = 2), and COL2A1 (n  = 1) or involved in the RAS/MAPK pathway: NF1 (n  = 2), PTPN11 (n  = 1), CBL (n  = 1), and BRAF (n  = 1). None of these patients had clinical findings to guide a candidate gene approach. The diagnostic yield was higher among children with severe short stature (35% vs 12.2% for height SDS ≤ or > −3; P = 0.034). The genetic diagnosis had an impact on clinical management for four children.


A multigene sequencing approach can determine the genetic etiology of short stature in up to one in six children with ISS, removing the term idiopathic from their clinical classification.