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  • Author: Rainer Görges x
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Irfan Vardarli Department of Medicine I, Klinikum Vest, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Recklinghausen, Academic Teaching Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Recklinghausen, Germany

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Manuel Weber Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Frank Weidemann Department of Medicine I, Klinikum Vest, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Recklinghausen, Academic Teaching Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Recklinghausen, Germany

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Dagmar Führer Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry – Division of Laboratory Research; Endocrine Tumor Center at WTZ/Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Ken Herrmann Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Objective

The usefulness of routine calcitonin measurement for early detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in patients with nodular thyroid disease (NTD) has been investigated in various studies. Recently, a Cochrane review has been published on this issue, but a meta-analysis is lacking yet. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis.

Methods

We performed an electronic search using PubMed/Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of routine calcitonin measurement for detecting MTC in patients with NDT were selected. Statistics were performed by using Stata software, risk of bias was assessed using Review Manager version 5.3.

Results

Seventeen studies, involving 74,407 patients were included in the study. Meta-analysis, using the bivariate random effects model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve revealed the following pooled estimates: sensitivity 0.99 (95% CI, 0.81–1.00), specificity 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99), positive likelihood ratio (L+) 72.4 (95% CI, 32.3–162.1), and negative likelihood ratio (L−) 0.01 (95% CI, 0.00–0.23). Meta-regression analysis showed that the threshold of basal calcitonin is an independent factor, but in particular performing stimulation test is not an independent factor.

Conclusions

We showed that routine basal serum calcitonin measurement in the management of patients with thyroid nodules is valuable for the detection of MTC. However, the published cut-off values should be considered and, if applicable, the patients monitored in a wait-and-see strategy by experienced physicians to avoid overtreatment.

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Luca Giovanella Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland
Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

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Maria Luisa Garo Mathsly Research, Brescia and Vibo Valentia, Italy

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Domenico Albano Nuclear Medicine, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili Brescia, Brescia, Italy

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany

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Luca Ceriani Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Institute of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Bellinzona, Switzerland
Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Oncology Research, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Bellinzona, Switzerland

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Objective

In patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), recurrences may occur in up to 20% and may have a fatal outcome in 10% of cases. Thyroglobulin doubling time (Tg-DT) values may contribute to predict response to treatment and disease recurrence in DTC patients. This study aimed to address the following questions: (1) Are Tg-DT values indicative of response to treatments in patients with DTC (i.e. ’treatment monitoring’)?; (2) Is Tg-DT predictive of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) PET/CT in patients with DTC?; (3) Are Tg-DT values predictive of DTC prognosis (i.e. ‘prediction’)?

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods

Methodology was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021257947). A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus from June to August 2021 without time and language restrictions.

Results

Eleven studies were included for a total of 1421 patients. Positive association between Tg-DT < 1 year and recurrence or disease progression was observed. Tg-DT was found to be related with (2-[18F]FDG) PET/CT results in patients with DTC. The area under the curve was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83–0.89), sensitivity was 0.84 (0.64;0.94), specificity was 0.71 (0.35; 0.92), DOR was 13.1 (3.1; 55.0), LR+ was 2.9 (1.0; 8.1), LR− was 0.22 (0.1; 0.5). For patients with Tg-DT < 1 year (n  = 247), the survival risk ratio was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.94).

Conclusions

Tg-DT values are valuable in predicting response to treatment and disease recurrence in patients with DTC, as well as their overall survival. In addition, Tg-DT significantly increases the detection rate of 2-[18F]-FDG PET/CT.

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Irfan Vardarli 5th Medical Department, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Susanne Tan Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry – Division of Laboratory Research Endocrine Tumor Center at WTZ/Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Bernhard K Krämer 5th Medical Department, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Ken Herrmann Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Christoph Brochhausen Institue of Pathology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Objective

The management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (ITN) is still a challenge. To evaluate the performance of commercial molecular tests for ITN, we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis.

Methods

We performed an electronic search using PubMed/Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of Afirma gene expression classifier (GEC), Afirma gene sequencing classifier (GSC), ThyroSeq v2 (TSv2), or ThyroSeq v3 (TSv3) in patients with ITN (only Bethesda category III or IV) were selected; Statistical analyses were performed by using Stata.

Results

Seventy-one samples (GEC, n = 38; GSC, n = 16; TSv2, n = 9; TSv3, n = 8) in 53 studies, involving 6490 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) with ITN cytology with molecular diagnostics (GEC, GSC, TSv2, or TSv3), were included in the study. The meta-analysis showed the following pooled estimates: sensitivity 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94–0.97), specificity 0.35 (0.28–0.43), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 1.5 (1.3–1.6), and negative likelihood ratio (LR−) 0.13 (0.09–0.19), with the best performance for TSv3 (area under the ROC curve 0.95 (0.93–0.96), followed by TSv2 (0.90 (0.87–0.92)), GSC (0.86 (0.82–0.88)), and GEC (0.82 (0.78–0.85)); the best rule-out property was observed for GSC (LR−, 0.07 (0.02–0.19)), followed by TSv3 (0.11 (0.05–0.24)) and GEC (0.16 (0.10–0.28), and the best rule-in was observed for TSv2 (LR+, 2,9 (1.4–4.6)), followed by GSC (1.9 (1.6–2.4)). A meta-regression analysis revealed that study design, Bethesda category, and type of molecular test were independent factors.

Conclusion

We showed that in patients with ITN, TSv3 has the best molecular diagnostic performance, followed by TSv2, GSC, and GEC. As regards rule-out malignancy, GSC, and rule-in, TSV2 is superior to other tests.

Open access
Kim Magaly Pabst Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Robert Seifert Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany

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Nader Hirmas Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Martina Broecker-Preuss Department of Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, University Hospital, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Bochum, Germany

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Manuel Weber Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Wolfgang Peter Fendler Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Timo Bartel Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Sarah Theurer German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Ken Herrmann Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Objective

Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is associated with reduced quality of life, and therefore, early identification of patients at risk is urgently needed.Here we investigated the predictive power of various cut-off values of single stimulated thyroglobulin (s-Tg) and single highly sensitive measured, unstimulated thyroglobulin (u-hsTg) measurements close to the end of primary therapy for recurrence-free survival (RFS) in long-term follow-up (>10 years) of patients with DTC.

Methods

In DTC patients with adjuvant radioiodine therapy, we assessed retrospectively u-hsTg (6 ± 3 months before s-Tg measurement) and s-Tg measurements (≤24 months after last radioiodine therapy). Positive predictive (PPV)/negative predictive values (NPV) of various cut-off values (s-Tg: 0.5/1.0 ng/mL; u-hsTg: 0.09/0.2 ng/mL) for patient outcomes as well as additional factors associated with disease development were analyzed.

Results

In total, 175 patients were retrospectively reviewed (tumor recurrence: n = 14/complete remission: n = 161). Examined cut-off values for s-Tg and u-hsTg showed significant predictive power for RFS (log-rank: all P < 0.001). NPV/PPV for s-Tg were 98.6%/36.4%, respectively (0.5 ng/mL cut-off) and 96.7%/42.9%, respectively (1.0 ng/mL cut-off); those for u-hsTg were 97.3%/35.7%, respectively (0.09 ng/mL cut-off) and 95.2%/85.7%, respectively (0.2 ng/mL cut-off). U-hsTg (P < 0.001) and patient age (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with tumor recurrence. One-third of patients with tumor recurrence in the course initially showed undetectable u-hsTg after completion of primary therapy.

Conclusion

With >10 years of follow-up, both s-Tg and u-hsTg have a comparably high predictive power for RFS, while only u-hsTg was significantly associated with a recurrence event.Serial u-hsTg measurements seem warranted since patients with tumor recurrence during follow-up may have an undetectable tumor marker at baseline.

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