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Open access

Prachi Bansal, Anurag Lila, Manjunath Goroshi, Swati Jadhav, Nilesh Lomte, Kunal Thakkar, Atul Goel, Abhidha Shah, Shilpa Sankhe, Naina Goel, Neelam Jaguste, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini Shah

Purpose

Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the primary treatment modality for Cushing’s disease (CD). However, the predictors of post-operative remission and recurrence remain debatable. Thus, we studied the post-operative remission and long-term recurrence rates, as well as their respective predictive factors.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of case records of 230 CD patients who underwent primary microscopic TSS at our tertiary care referral centre between 1987 and 2015 was undertaken. Demographic features, pre- and post-operative hormonal values, MRI findings, histopathological features and follow-up data were recorded. Remission and recurrence rates as well as their respective predictive factors were studied.

Results

Overall, the post-operative remission rate was 65.6% (early remission 46%; delayed remission 19.6%), while the recurrence rate was 41% at mean follow-up of 74 ± 61.1 months (12–270 months). Significantly higher early remission rates were observed in patients with microadenoma vs macroadenoma (51.7% vs 30.6%, P = 0.005) and those with unequivocal vs equivocal MRI for microadenoma (55.8% vs 38.5%, P = 0.007). Patients with invasive macroadenoma had poorer (4.5% vs 45%, P = 0.001) remission rates. Recurrence rates were higher in patients with delayed remission than those with early remission (61.5% vs 30.8%, P = 0.001). Duration of post-operative hypocortisolemia ≥13 months predicted sustained remission with 100% specificity and 46.4% sensitivity. Recurrence could be detected significantly earlier (27.7 vs 69.2 months, P < 0.001) in patients with available serial follow-up biochemistry as compared to those with infrequent follow-up after remission.

Conclusion

In our study, remission and recurrence rates were similar to that of reported literature, but proportion of delayed remission was relatively higher. Negative/equivocal MRI findings and presence of macroadenoma, especially those with cavernous sinus invasion were predictors of poor remission rates. In addition to early remission, longer duration of post-operative hypocortisolism is an important predictor of sustained remission. Regular biochemical surveillance may help in identifying recurrence early.

Open access

Manjeetkaur Sehemby, Prachi Bansal, Vijaya Sarathi, Ashwini Kolhe, Kanchan Kothari, Swati Jadhav-Ramteke, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini S Shah

Literature on virilising ovarian tumors (VOTs) is limited to case reports and series reporting single pathological type. We have analyzed the clinical, hormonal, radiological, histological, management and outcome data of VOT. This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary health care center from Western India. Consecutive patients with VOT presenting to our endocrine center between 2002 and 2017 were included. Our study included 13 patients of VOT. Out of 13 patients, two were postmenopausal. All patients in the reproductive age group had secondary amenorrhea except one who presented with primary amenorrhea. Modified F and G score (mFG) at presentation was 24 ± 4.3 and all patients had severe hirsutism (mFG ≥15). Change in voice (n = 11) and clitoromegaly (n = 7) were the other most common virilising symptoms. Duration of symptoms varied from 4 to 48 months. Median serum total testosterone level at presentation was 5.6 ng/mL with severe hyperandrogenemia (serum testosterone ≥2 ng/mL) but unsuppressed gonadotropins in all patients. Transabdominal ultrasonography (TAS) detected VOT in all except one. Ten patients underwent unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy whereas three patients (peri- or postmenopausal) underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Seven patients had Sertoli Leydig cell tumor, three had steroid cell tumor and two had Leydig cell tumor and one had miscellaneous sex cord stromal tumor. All patients had normalization of serum testosterone after tumor excision. In conclusion, VOTs present with severe hyperandrogenism and hyperandrogenemia. Sertoli Leydig cell tumor is the most common histological subtype. Surgery is the treatment of choice with good surgical outcome.