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Martine Cohen-Solal, Thomas Funch-Brentano and Pablo Urena

Mineral and bone diseases (MBD) are predominant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and leads to several bone manifestations, from pain to skeletal fractures. Cumulative traditional clinical risk factors, such as age and gender, in addition to those related to CKD, enhances the risk of comorbidity and mortality related to fractures. Despite great advances in understanding MBD in CKD, clinical and biological targets are lacking, which leads to under-management of fractures. Optimal PTH control results in a net improvement in defining the levels of bone remodeling. In addition, circulating biomarkers such as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and cross-linked collagen type I peptide will also additional information about bone mineralization and evaluation of fracture risk. Imaging techniques will facilitate to characterize the patient at risk by the use of the measurement of bone mineral density by DEXA or by high peripheral computed tomography which allow the discrimination of trabecular and cortical bone. We here reviewed the literature related to the epidemiology and pathophysiological role of mineral and biochemical factors involved in CKD-MBD with a special focus in fracture risk. We also provide an algorithm that could be used for the management of bone diseases and the treatment decision. Finally, the combined expertise of clinicians from various disciplines is crucial for the best prevention of fractures.