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Early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in subjects with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes

Xiaoli Liu, Lanxiang Liu, Rui Wang, Xiaojiao Jia, Binbin Liu, Ning Ma, and Qiang Lu


We aimed to investigate early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in populations with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes.

Materials and methods

A total of 148 participants who did not have diabetes mellitus were assigned to three groups through an oral glucose tolerance test: the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group; the impaired glucose regulation, also known as prediabetes group and the new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The insulin resistance index was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An ELISA was used to determine the level of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). An arteriosclerosis detector was used to measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). The baPWV, ABI, and FGF21 were used to assess early arteriosclerosis.


Significant differences in age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), 2-h insulin (2hINS), and HOMA-IR were found between the NGT group and the prediabetes and new-onset diabetes groups. All of the above, except 2hINS, showed an increasing trend. Moreover, the FGF21 was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the NGT group. The baPWV was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the other two groups, but no significant difference was noted in the ABI. Age, SBP, diastolic blood pressure, FPG, 2hPG, and FGF21 were positively correlated with the baPWV. In addition, FPG, SBP, FGF21, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for the baPWV.


Patients with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes may have more significant early arteriosclerosis. The blood glucose level and insulin resistance index may be independent risk factors for early arteriosclerosis.

Open access

The essential role of forkhead box P4 (FOXP4) in thyroid cancer: a study related to The Cancer Genome Atlas and experimental data

Tian Zhou, Dai-wei Zhao, Ning Ma, Xue-ying Zhu, Xing-hong Chen, Xue Luo, Song Chen, and Qing-jun Gao


Thyroid cancer (THCA) is the most common endocrine cancer in the world. Although most patients with THCA have a good prognosis, the prognosis of those with THCA who have an extra-glandular invasion, vascular invasion, and distant metastasis is poor. Therefore, it is very important to find potential biomarkers that can effectively predict the prognosis and progression of highly aggressive THCAs. It has been identified that forkhead box P4 (FOXP4) may be a new biomarker for the proliferation and prognosis for tumor diagnosis. However, the expression and function of FOXP4 in THCA remain to be determined.


In the present study, the function of FOXP4 in cells was investigated through the comprehensive analysis of data in The Cancer Genome Atlas and combined with experiments including immunohistochemistry (IHC), colony formation, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, wound scratch healing, and transwell invasion assay.


In the present study, relevant bioinformatic data showed that FOXP4 was highly expressed in THCA, which was consistent with the results of the IHC and cell experiments. Meanwhile, 10 FOXP4-related hub genes were identified as potential diagnostic genes for THCA. It was found in further experiments that FOXP4 was located in the nucleus of THCA cells, and the expression of FOXP4 in the nucleus was higher than that in the cytoplasm. FOXP4 knockdown inhibited in vitro proliferation of the THCA cells, whereas overexpression promoted the proliferation and migration of THCA cells. Furthermore, deficiency of FOXP4 induced cell-cycle arrest.


FOXP4 might be a potential target for diagnosing and treating THCA.