Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a relatively rare disorder among children, adolescents and young adults. Its development at an early age is suspicious for hereditary causes, though the need for routine genetic testing remains controversial.
To identify and describe hereditary forms of PHPT in patients with manifestation of the disease under 40 years of age.
We enrolled 65 patients with PHPT diagnosed before 40 years of age. Ten of them had MEN1 mutation, and PHPT in them was the first manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.
The other fifty-five patients underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS) of a custom-designed panel of genes, associated with PHPT (MEN1, CASR, CDC73, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2C, CDKN2D). In cases suspicious for gross CDC73 deletions multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed.
NGS revealed six pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline sequence variants: four in CDC73 c.271C>T (p.Arg91*), c.496C>T (p.Gln166*), c.685A>T (p.Arg229*) and c.787C>T (p.Arg263Cys); one in CASR c.3145G>T (p.Glu1049*) and one in MEN1 c.784-9G>A. In two patients, MLPA confirmed gross CDC73 deletions. In total, 44 sporadic and 21 hereditary PHPT cases were identified. Parathyroid carcinomas and atypical parathyroid adenomas were present in 8/65 of young patients, in whom CDC73 mutations were found in 5/8.
Hereditary forms of PHPT can be identified in up to 1/3 of young patients with manifestation of the disease at <40 years of age. Parathyroid carcinomas or atypical parathyroid adenomas in young patients are frequently associated with CDC73 mutations.