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Mojca Jensterle, Nika Aleksandra Kravos, Simona Ferjan, Katja Goricar, Vita Dolzan, and Andrej Janez


Long-term efficacy of metformin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) apart from in those with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes remains unproven. We aimed to evaluate the impact of metformin in overweight-obese patients with PCOS and normal baseline glycemic homeostasis.


A 10-year longitudinal follow-up of a retrospective cohort comprising 159 patients with PCOS defined by Rotterdam criteria, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and normal initial glucose homeostasis (age 28.4 ± 6.4 years, BMI 34.9 ± 6.6 kg/m2) that had been receiving metformin 1000 mg BID. Collection data contained 6085 time-points including anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters.


After the first year body mass (BM) decreased for 3.9 ± 6.8 kg (P < 0.001) and remained stable during the following 3 years. Menstrual frequency (MF) increased to 3.0 ± 3.9 bleeds/year (P < 0.001) after first year to over 11 bleeds/year in the following years. The total testosterone and androstenedione decreased to 15.4 ± 47.9% and 11.3 ± 46.4% within first year, with further decrease in total testosterone and androstenedione to 37.8 ± 61.8 and 24.8 ± 40.5% at the fifth year of the follow-up. The total conversion rate to prediabetes and diabetes was extremely low throughout observation period. Less than 25% of patients continued with metformin for more than 5 years with further dropout to only 6% on metformin therapy at the tenth year of follow-up.


Long-term metformin treatment of overweight-obese women with PCOS and normal baseline glycemic homeostasis resulted in reduction and stabilization of BM, improvements of MF and androgen profile and low conversion rate to diabetes.

Open access

Ana Podbregar, Tomaž Kocjan, Matej Rakuša, Peter Popović, Manca Garbajs, Katja Goricar, Andrej Janez, and Mojca Jensterle

Most data on the natural history of nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas (NFAI) are provided by follow-ups up to 5 years. We conducted a 10.5 (9.1–11.9)-year prospective follow-up study of NFAI in 67 participants (20 (29.9%) males, 47 (70.1%) females) of mean age 57.9 (52.3–63.9) years and BMI 27.42 (24.07–30.56) kg/m2). We also evaluated the associations between baseline BMI and changes of NFAIs’ characteristics at follow-up. Progression to mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE) was observed in 15 (22 %) patients, with 14 of them having post overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ODST) cortisol between 50 and138 nmol/L and only one > 138 nmol/L. The progression rate was significantly higher in overweight and obese than in normal-weight subjects. Patients that developed MACE had a significantly higher baseline mean cortisol after 1 mg ODST. Tumor enlargement ≥10 mm occurred in 8.9% of patients. In comparison with reports of shorter observational periods, we observed a higher growth rate ≥ 10 mm and higher progression rate from NFAI to MACE, particularly in overweight and obese subjects. All tumors had persistent radiological characteristics typical for adrenal adenoma. We concluded that the duration of the follow-up period is an important factor in characterizing the natural history of NFAI. Higher baseline BMI and higher baseline cortisol after ODST might predict the long-term likelihood of progression in hormonal activity. The magnitudes of observed progressions in growth or hormonal activity were clinically insignificant. Our long-term follow-up, therefore, clearly supports the general view that a long-term monitoring of patients with NFAI is not necessary.