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Open access

Morten Winkler Møller, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Christian Bonde Pedersen, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, and Frantz Rom Poulsen


Intraoperative low field MRI (iMRI, 0.15 T) during transsphenoidal surgery on pituitary adenomas (PAs) may significantly improve tumor removal. However, extensive surgery can lead to pituitary hormone deficiency. Furthermore, introduction of iMRI will prolong duration of surgery, which may elevate risk of postoperative infections.


Overall, 180 transsphenoidal surgeries for PAs from 2007 to 2015 were included. IMRI was available from 2011 to 2015, during this period 67/78 (86%) surgeries were with iMRI (iMRI, n = 67). A total of 113 surgeries were performed without iMRI (controls). All surgical procedures were performed by microscopic technique. Tumor size, hormonal status and vision were assessed before surgery and 3–5 months postoperatively.


Gross total resection (GTR), mean tumor remnant volume and ∆-volumes were comparable between iMRI and controls: 15% (10/66) vs 23% (26/109) (P = 0.17), 2.97 cm3 (0.9–5) vs 2.1 cm3 (1.6–2.6) (P = 0.3) and 4.5 cm3 (3.6–5.5) vs 5.1 cm3 (4.2–6) (P = 0.4), respectively. Duration of surgery was significantly longer during iMRI vs controls: 126 min (117–135) vs 98 min (92–103) (P < 0.001). New pituitary–adrenal deficiency in iMRI vs controls was seen in 35% (17/48) and 35% (23/66) of surgeries, respectively (P = 0.95). New thyroid deficiency was found in 33% (13/29) and 41% (28/69) and visual field deficiencies improved in 44% (19/43) and 38% (23/60) in iMRI vs controls, respectively (P > 0.1).


Tumor remnant after pituitary surgery was not significantly reduced using intraoperative low field MRI. Duration of surgery was increased in iMRI, but was not associated with increased infection rate. Pituitary hormonal function and vision were comparable between iMRI and controls.

Open access

Pernille Bækgaard Udesen, Dorte Glintborg, Anja Elaine Sørensen, Rikke Svendsen, Nanna Louise Skov Nielsen, Marie Louise Muff Wissing, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Anne Lis Mikkelsen Englund, and Louise Torp Dalgaard

Metformin is associated with increased insulin sensitivity, whereas oral contraceptive pills (OCP) could increase the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Certain miRNAs might serve as biomarkers for the risk of T2D. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in circulating miRNA levels during treatment with metformin and OCP in women with PCOS. Sixty-five women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria were randomized to metformin (2 g/day), metformin + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 µg ethinylestradiol) or OCP alone for 12 months. Serum miRNA analysis was performed with individual RT-qPCR or Taqman low density array cards of 22 selected miRNAs previously related to PCOS, glucose and/or lipid metabolism. miR-122 and miR-29a levels were decreased after treatment with metformin compared with metformin + OCP and OCP group: miR-122: log2 difference −0.7 (P = 0.01) and −0.7 (P = 0.02), miR-29a: log2 difference −0.5 (P = 0.01) and −0.4 (P = 0.04), while miR-223 levels were decreased in the metformin + OCP group after treatment: log2 difference −0.5 (P = 0.02). During the treatment period, a significant weight loss was observed in the metformin group compared with the OCP group. In the OCP group, miRNA levels were unchanged during the treatment period. Levels of circulating miRNAs associated with lipid and glucose metabolism decreased during metformin treatment. Changes in miRNA levels in the metformin group could be explained by the simultaneous weight loss in the same group. These results support the notion that metformin treatment alone may be superior for metabolic health compared with OCP.

Open access

Jan Roar Mellembakken, Azita Mahmoudan, Lars Mørkrid, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Laure Morin-Papunen, Juha S Tapanainen, Terhi T Piltonen, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Eszter Vanky, Pernille Ravn, Richard Christian Jensen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, and Dorte Glintborg


Obesity is considered to be the strongest predictive factor for cardio-metabolic risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the study was to compare blood pressure (BP) in normal weight women with PCOS and controls matched for age and BMI.


From a Nordic cross-sectional base of 2615 individuals of Nordic ethnicity, we studied a sub cohort of 793 normal weight women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (512 women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria and 281 age and BMI-matched controls). Participants underwent measurement of BP and body composition (BMI, waist-hip ratio), lipid status, and fasting BG. Data were presented as median (quartiles).


The median age for women with PCOS were 28 (25, 32) years and median BMI was 22.2 (20.7, 23.4) kg/m2. Systolic BP was 118 (109, 128) mmHg in women with PCOS compared to 110 (105, 120) mmHg in controls and diastolic BP was 74 (67, 81) vs 70 (64, 75) mmHg, both P < 0.001. The prevalence of women with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg was 11.1% (57/512) in women with PCOS vs 1.8% (5/281) in controls, P < 0.001. In women ≥ 35 years the prevalence of BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg was comparable in women with PCOS and controls (12.7% vs 9.8%, P = 0.6). Using multiple regression analyses, the strongest association with BP was found for age, waist circumference, and total cholesterol in women with PCOS.


Normal weight women with PCOS have higher BP than controls. BP and metabolic screening are relevant also in young normal weight women with PCOS.