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Open access

Dorte Glintborg, Katrine Rubin, Mads Nybo, Bo Abrahamsen and Marianne Andersen

Aim: To investigate risk of thyroid disease in Danish women with PCOS.

Design: National register-based study on women with PCOS in Denmark. 18,476 women had a diagnosis of PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. PCOS Odense University Hospital (PCOS OUH, N=1,146) was an embedded cohort of women with PCOS and clinical and biochemical examination. Three age-matched controls were included for each woman with PCOS (N=54,757). The main outcome measures were thyroid disease (hypothyroidism, Graves’ disease, goitre, thyroiditis) according to diagnosis codes and/or inferred from filled medicine prescriptions. Associations between baseline TSH and development of cardio-metabolic disease was examined in PCOS OUH.

Results: The median (quartiles) age at inclusion was 29 (23-35) years and follow up duration was 11.1 (6.9–16.0) years. The Hazard ratio (95% CI) for thyroid disease development was 2.5 (2.3; 2.7) (p<0.001). The event rate of thyroid disease was 6.0 per 1000 patient years in PCOS Denmark versus 2.4 per 1000 patient years in controls (p<0.001). Women in PCOS OUH with TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L (n=133) had higher BMI (median 29 vs. 27 kg/m2), wider waist, higher triglycerides and free testosterone by the time of PCOS diagnosis compared to women in PCOS OUH with TSH <2.5 mIU/L (n=588). Baseline TSH did not predict later development of cardio-metabolic diseases in PCOS OUH.

Conclusions: The event rate of thyroid disease was significantly and substantially higher in women with PCOS compared to controls.

Open access

Dorte Glintborg, Hanne Mumm, Jens Juul Holst and Marianne Andersen


Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may increase the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia (RH) and decrease glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The possible effects of treatment with oral contraceptives (OCP) and/or metformin on GLP-1 secretion and risk of RH in PCOS is undetermined.


Outpatient clinic.

Patients and interventions

Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety women with PCOS were randomized to 12-month treatment with OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 mg ethinylestradiol), metformin (2 g/day) or metformin + OCP. Five-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (5-h OGTT) measuring fasting and area under the curve (AUC) for GLP-1, glucose, insulin and C-peptide were performed before and after the intervention period. Sixty-five women completed the study and 34 weight-matched healthy women were included as controls.

Main outcome measures

Changes in GLP-1, glucose, insulin and C-peptide during 5-h OGTT.


Fasting GLP-1 levels increased during metformin + OCP vs OCP treatment, whereas AUC GLP-1 levels were unchanged during medical treatment. The prevalence of reactive hypoglycemia increased from 9/65 to 14/65 after intervention (P < 0.01) and was more common after treatment with metformin + OCP (increase from 3/23 to 6/23, P = 0.01). Reactive hypoglycaemia was associated with higher insulin and C-peptide levels during 5-h OGTT, but was unassociated with BMI and AUC GLP-1. GLP-1 levels were comparable in PCOS vs controls. AUC GLP-1 levels were significantly lower in obese vs lean patients and were inversely associated with BMI.


AUC GLP-1 levels were unchanged during treatment. Increased risk of hypoglycemia during metformin + OCP could be associated with increased insulin secretion.

Open access

Søs Dragsbæk Larsen, Christine Dalgård, Mathilde Egelund Christensen, Sine Lykkedegn, Louise Bjørkholt Andersen, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg and Henrik Thybo Christesen


Low foetal vitamin D status may be associated with higher blood pressure (BP) in later life.


To examine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (s-25OHD) in cord and pregnancy associates with systolic and diastolic BP (SBP; DBP) in children up to 3 years of age.


Prospective, population-based cohort study.


We included 1594 singletons from the Odense Child Cohort with available cord s-25OHD and BP data at median age 3.7 months (48% girls), 18.9 months (44% girls) or 3 years (48% girls). Maternal s-25OHD was also assessed at gestational ages 12 and 29 weeks. Multiple regression models were stratified by sex a priori and adjusted for maternal educational level, season of birth and child height, weight and age.


In 3-year-old girls, SBP decreased with −0.7 mmHg (95% CI −1.1; −0.3, P = 0.001) and DBP with −0.4 mmHg (95% CI −0.7; −0.1, P = 0.016) for every 10 nmol/L increase in cord s-25OHD in adjusted analyses. Moreover, the adjusted odds of having SBP >90th percentile were reduced by 30% for every 10 nmol/L increase in cord s-25OHD (P = 0.004) and by 64% for cord s-25OHD above the median 45.1 nmol/L (P = 0.02). Similar findings were observed between pregnancy s-25OHD and 3-year SBP, cord s-25OHD and SBP at 18.9 months, and cord s-25OHD and DBP at 3 years. No consistent associations were observed between s-25OHD and BP in boys.


Cord s-25OHD was inversely associated with SBP and DBP in young girls, but not in boys. Higher vitamin D status in foetal life may modulate BP in young girls. The sex difference remains unexplained.

Open access

Morten Winkler Møller, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Christian Bonde Pedersen, Bjarne Winther Kristensen and Frantz Rom Poulsen


Intraoperative low field MRI (iMRI, 0.15 T) during transsphenoidal surgery on pituitary adenomas (PAs) may significantly improve tumor removal. However, extensive surgery can lead to pituitary hormone deficiency. Furthermore, introduction of iMRI will prolong duration of surgery, which may elevate risk of postoperative infections.


Overall, 180 transsphenoidal surgeries for PAs from 2007 to 2015 were included. IMRI was available from 2011 to 2015, during this period 67/78 (86%) surgeries were with iMRI (iMRI, n = 67). A total of 113 surgeries were performed without iMRI (controls). All surgical procedures were performed by microscopic technique. Tumor size, hormonal status and vision were assessed before surgery and 3–5 months postoperatively.


Gross total resection (GTR), mean tumor remnant volume and ∆-volumes were comparable between iMRI and controls: 15% (10/66) vs 23% (26/109) (P = 0.17), 2.97 cm3 (0.9–5) vs 2.1 cm3 (1.6–2.6) (P = 0.3) and 4.5 cm3 (3.6–5.5) vs 5.1 cm3 (4.2–6) (P = 0.4), respectively. Duration of surgery was significantly longer during iMRI vs controls: 126 min (117–135) vs 98 min (92–103) (P < 0.001). New pituitary–adrenal deficiency in iMRI vs controls was seen in 35% (17/48) and 35% (23/66) of surgeries, respectively (P = 0.95). New thyroid deficiency was found in 33% (13/29) and 41% (28/69) and visual field deficiencies improved in 44% (19/43) and 38% (23/60) in iMRI vs controls, respectively (P > 0.1).


Tumor remnant after pituitary surgery was not significantly reduced using intraoperative low field MRI. Duration of surgery was increased in iMRI, but was not associated with increased infection rate. Pituitary hormonal function and vision were comparable between iMRI and controls.

Open access

Dorte Glintborg, Magda Lambaa Altinok, Pernille Ravn, Kurt Bjerregaard Stage, Kurt Højlund and Marianne Andersen


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate the changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo.


Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-week SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n = 21) or placebo (n = 21). Patients underwent clinical examination, fasting blood samples, adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH) test, 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and filled in questionnaires regarding mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL): WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Short Form 36 (SF-36) and PCOS questionnaire.


Included women were aged 31 (6) years (mean (s.d.)) and had body mass index (BMI) 35.8 (6.5) kg/m2 and waist 102 (12) cm. Escitalopram was associated with increased waist (median (quartiles) change 1 (0; 3) cm), P = 0.005 vs change during placebo and increased cortisol levels (cortisol 0, cortisol 60, peak cortisol and area under the curve for cortisol during ACTH test), all P< 0.05 vs changes during placebo. Escitalopram had no significant effect on measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, fasting lipids, mental health or HRQoL.


Waist circumference and cortisol levels increased during treatment with escitalopram in women with PCOS and no clinical depression, whereas metabolic risk markers, mental health and HRQol were unchanged.