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Dan Liang Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Han Chen Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Li-Yong Zhong Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Purpose

Intracranial germ cell tumors frequently arise from the midline of the brain, occasionally presenting as bifocal diseases. The predominant lesion might affect clinical characteristics and neuroendocrine outcomes.

Method

A retrospective cohort study involving 38 patients with intracranial bifocal germ cell tumors was performed.

Result

Twenty-one patients were assigned to the sellar-predominant group, while the other 17 patients were assigned to the non-sellar-predominant group. Differences in gender ratio, age, manifestation, the incidence of metastasis, the incidence of elevated tumor markers, human chorionic gonadotropin levels in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid, diagnostic method, and tumor type were not significant between the sellar-predominant group and the non-sellar-predominant group. Before treatment, the sellar-predominant group had a higher incidence of adenohypophysis hormone deficiencies and central diabetes insipidus than those of the non-sellar-predominant group, without significant differences. After multidisciplinary therapy, the sellar-predominant group also had a higher incidence of adenohypophysis hormone deficiencies and central diabetes insipidus than those of the non-sellar-predominant group. The differences in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis impairment (P = 0.008), hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis impairment (P = 0.048), and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonad (HPG) axis impairment (P = 0.029) were significant between sellar-predominant group and non-sellar-predominant group, while the others were not. At median 6 (3, 43) months of follow-up visit, sellar-predominant group had a higher incidence of adenohypophysis hormone deficiencies than those of non-sellar-predominant group. The differences in the HPA impairment (P = 0.002), HPT impairment (P = 0.024), and HPG impairment (P < 0.000) were significant, while the others were not. Further comparison of the neuroendocrine function between different subtypes of sellar-predominant patients indicated that the differences in adenohypophysis hormone deficiencies and central diabetes insipidus were not significant between the two subtype groups.

Conclusion

Bifocal patients with different predominant lesions present similar manifestations and neuroendocrine disorders before treatment. Non-sellar-predominant patients would have better neuroendocrine outcomes after tumor treatment. The distinction of the predominant lesion in patients with bifocal intracranial germ cell tumor plays a valuable role in predicting neuroendocrine outcomes, as well as in optimizing long-term neuroendocrine management during survival time.

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Caiyan Mo Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Tao Tong Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Ying Guo Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Zheng Li Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Liyong Zhong Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Purpose

The coexistence of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (GHPA) and Graves' disease (GD) is rare. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and thyroid function in patients with GHPA combined with GD and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

Methods

Eleven patients with GHPA combined with GD during 2015-2022 were collected by searching the medical record system of Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University. Changes in GH/IGF-1 levels and thyroid function were compared before and after the application of antithyroid drugs (ATD) and before and after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) or somatostatin analog (SSA) treatment, respectively.

Results

After the application of ATD, with the decrease of thyroid hormone levels, GH/IGF-1 levels also decreased gradually. In patients without ATD application, after surgery or SSA treatment, thyroid hormone levels decreased as GH/IGF-1 decreased.

Conclusion

Hyperthyroidism due to GD promotes the secretion of GH/IGF-1, and when thyroid hormone levels were decreased by the use of ATD, GH and IGF-1 levels were also decreased, suggesting that thyroid hormones may influence the synthesis and secretion of GH/IGF-1. The use of ATD to control thyrotoxicosis before TSS is not only beneficial in reducing the risk of anesthesia but may help to promote biochemical control of GHPA. On the other hand, high levels of GH/IGF-1 in patients with GHPA also exacerbate GD hyperthyroidism, which is ameliorated by a decrease in GH/IGF-1 levels by TSS or SSA treatment, suggesting that the GH–IGF-1 axis promotes growth, thyroid function, and thyroid hormone metabolism.

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