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Open access

Ling Hu, Ying Hu, and Ting Li

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the correlation between TN and the components of MS.

Methods: A total of 1526 subjects were divided into two groups: a TN group and a non-thyroid nodules (NTN) group. The height, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose level, fasting plasma insulin level, serum lipid profile, uric acid level, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free triiodothyronine (FT3) level, and free thyroxine (FT4) level of each patient were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Fatty liver and TN were detected by color Doppler ultrasonography.

Results: (1) The overall prevalence of TN was 39.5%; it was significantly higher in women than in men (P<0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (2) The overall prevalence of MS was 25.6%; it was significantly higher in men than in women (P<0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (3) FT3 was significantly lower in the TN group than in the NTN group (P<0.01). (4) Body mass index, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR were higher in the TN group than in the NTN group (P<0.05). (5) The existence of TN was significantly associated with overweight/obesity (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.024 - 1.089), and with insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.645 - 2.368), after adjusting for age and sex.

Conclusions: The prevalence of thyroid nodules and metabolic syndrome in the Nanchang area increases with age, and overweight/obesity and IR in patients are associated with thyroid nodules.

Open access

Zeming Liu, Di Hu, Yihui Huang, Sichao Chen, Wen Zeng, Ling Zhou, Wei Zhou, Min Wang, Haifeng Feng, Wei Wei, Chao Zhang, Danyang Chen, and Liang Guo

Objectives

Controversies regarding factors associated with distant metastasis in pediatric thyroid cancer remain among the scientific community. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing distant metastasis in pediatric thyroid cancer.

Methods

We reviewed 1376 patients (aged 2 to 18 years) with thyroid cancer treated between 2003 and 2014. Data collected and analyzed included sex, race, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, pathological type, number of tumor foci, tumor extension, T-stage, N-stage, surgical procedure and radiation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate factors influencing distant metastasis of pediatric thyroid cancer.

Results

In the univariate analysis, factors influencing distant metastasis of thyroid cancer were age at diagnosis (P < 0.001), N-stage (P < 0.001), number of tumor foci (P = 0.003), tumor extension (P < 0.001) and T-stage (T1 vs T2 (P = 0.803), T3 (P < 0.001) and T4 (P < 0.001)). In multivariate analysis, factors influencing distant metastasis of thyroid cancer were age at diagnosis (P = 0.001), N-stage (P < 0.001) and T-stage (T1 vs T3 (P = 0.036) and T4 (P < 0.001)). Sex, race, year of diagnosis, pathological type, number of tumor foci, tumor extension, surgical procedure and radiation had no significant influence on distant metastasis (all P > 0.05). Furthermore, according to chi-squared test, younger pediatric thyroid cancer patients with higher T- and N-stages are more likely to have distant metastasis.

Conclusion

Age at diagnosis, T-stage and N-stage influence distant metastasis of thyroid cancer patients aged 2 to 18 years; accordingly, more radical treatments may need to be used for patients with those risk elements.