Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, with a steadily increasing incidence in the last few decades worldwide. The predisposition to developing this carcinoma by the heterozygous state of rs2910164 within the precursor of the miR-146a has been reported, but recently not confirmed. Interestingly, on the same chromosome, almost 50 kb separate the pre-miR-146a from the pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), a proto-oncogene involved in several tumors, including thyroid cancers. In this study, we analyzed, using a case–control design, the genetic association between PTC and the genomic region encompassing pre-miR-146a rs2910164 and PTTG1 rs1862391 and rs2910202. We enrolled 307 affected patients and 206 healthy controls. The possible presence of thyroid nodules in controls was excluded by ultrasonography. All the cases were submitted to single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of pre-miR-146a and PTTG1, and risk association analyses were carried out. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of pre-miR-146a rs2910164 were not statistically different in the patients and controls, and this SNP was not in linkage disequilibrium with the investigated PTTG1 SNPs. Consistently, meta-analyses, the first including all the affected cases published to date, did not confirm the previously reported association of the heterozygous CG genotype with PTC. The PTTG1 SNPs exhibited the same allelic frequency in the patients and controls and were not associated with the disease. In conclusion, in a well-selected Italian population, neither pre-miR-146a rs2910164 nor PTTG1 rs1862391 and rs2910202 were found to be associated with the risk of developing PTC.