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Open access

Christine Poitou, Anthony Holland, Charlotte Höybye, Laura C G de Graaff, Sandrine Bottius, Berit Otterlei, and Maithé Tauber

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), the most common form of syndromic obesity, is a complex neurodevelopmental genetic disorder including obesity with hyperphagia, endocrine and metabolic disorders and also psychiatric disorders. The most frequent endocrine disturbances include hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Hypothyroidism and central adrenal insufficiency can also be observed but are less frequent. The transition of individuals with PWS from adolescence to adult life is challenging because of multiple comorbidities and complex disabilities. Individuals and caregivers face psychological, medical and social issues. This period of profound changes is thus prone to disruptions, and the main risks being the worsening of the medical situation and loss to follow-up of the individuals. Medical care may be poorly adapted to the needs of individuals because of a lack of knowledge concerning the syndrome and also lack of the necessary specific skills. A multidisciplinary panel composed of several experts in PWS met in November 2021 during an European Reference Network on Rare Endocrine Conditions (Endo-ERN) webinar. They presented complementary aspects of PWS from the perspective of the transition including psychiatric, pediatric and adult endocrinological and parent’s and patient’s points of view and shed light on the best way to approach this pivotal period.

Open access

Lisette van Alewijk, Kirsten Davidse, Karlijn Pellikaan, Judith van Eck, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, Theo C J Sas, Sabine Hannema, Aart J van der Lely, and Laura C G de Graaff


Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with common endocrine disorders show a high dropout (up to 50%) after the transfer from paediatric to adult endocrinology. Little is known about transition readiness in rare endocrine conditions (rEC). This study aims to assess medical self-management skills (SMS) among AYA with rEC in relation to age and gender, in order to understand dropout and increase transition readiness.


Cross-sectional study using web-based medical self-management questionnaires.


Questionnaires consisting of 54 questions in seven domains were filled out by the adolescents before the first shared appointment with both paediatric and adult endocrinologist.


Fifty-seven patients (median age 17 years, 25/57 females) participated and generally scored well on most items. However, one out of seven did not know the name of their disorder, one sixth of the glucocorticoid users did not know that dose should be adapted in case of illness or surgery, over one-fifth had never ordered their repeat prescriptions themselves and two-thirds had never had a conversation alone with their doctor.


Several SMS among patients with rEC are insufficient, with regard to medical knowledge, practical skills and communication. As SMS are only weakly related to non-modifiable factors, such as age and gender, we recommend focussing on other factors to increase transition readiness. The timing, amount and ‘mode’ of medical information should be individualised. Transition checklists should be used to detect shortcomings in practical skills and communication, which can subsequently be trained with the help of parents, caregivers and/or e-technology.

Open access

Kirsten Davidse, Anneloes van Staa, Wanda Geilvoet, Judith P van Eck, Karlijn Pellikaan, Janneke Baan, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, Erica L T van den Akker, Theo Sas, Sabine E Hannema, Aart Jan van der Lely, and Laura C G de Graaff


Transition from paediatric to adult endocrinology can be challenging for adolescents, their families and healthcare professionals. Previous studies have shown that up to 25% of young adults with endocrine disorders are lost to follow-up after moving out of paediatric care. This poses a health risk for young adults, which can lead to serious and expensive medical acute and long-term complications.


In order to understand and prevent dropout, we studied electronic medical records of patients with endocrine disorders. These patients were over 15 years old when they attended the paediatric endocrine outpatient clinic (OPC) of our hospital in 2013–2014 and should have made the transfer to adult care at the time of the study.


Of 387 adolescents, 131 had an indication for adult follow-up within our university hospital. Thirty-three (25%) were lost to follow-up. In 24 of them (73%), the invitation for the adult OPC had never been sent. We describe the failures in logistic processes that eventually led to dropout in these patients.


We found a 25% dropout during transfer from paediatric to adult tertiary endocrine care. Of all dropouts, 73% could be attributed to the failure of logistic steps. In order to prevent these dropouts, we provide practical recommendations for patients and paediatric and adult endocrinologists.