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Open access

Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah and Emily K Bergsland

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) metastasize to bone; however, a multi-institution evaluation of the natural history and complications of bone metastases across multiple NET subtypes has not, to our knowledge, previously been conducted. At two tertiary academic centers, we identified patients with bone metastases from databases of patients with a diagnosis of NET between 2004 and 2008. Detection of bone metastases, occurrence of skeletal-related events (SREs), and interventions were analyzed using summary statistics and categorical methods. Time-to-event data were assessed using Kaplan–Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Between 2004 and 2008, 82 out of 691 NET patients (12%) were reported to have bone metastases. Of the 82 patients with bone metastases, 55% were men and their median age was 49. Bone metastases occurred in 25% of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, 20% of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, 9% of carcinoid tumors, and 8% of pancreatic NETs. At time of detection of bone metastases, 60% reported symptoms, including pain; 10% developed cord compression, 9% suffered a pathological fracture, and 4% developed hypercalcemia. Occurrence of SREs did not differ significantly with regard to tumor histology. Of patients with bone metastases, 67 (82%) received at least one form of bone-directed treatment, 50% received radiation, 45% received a bisphosphonate, 18% underwent surgery, 11% received 131I-MIBG, 5% received denosumab, and 46% were treated with more than one treatment modality. Bone metastases occur in a substantial number of patients diagnosed with NETs. Patients are often symptomatic and many develop SREs. Given the recent therapeutic advances and increasing life expectancy of patients with NETs, development of guidelines for surveillance and clinical care of bone metastases from NETs is needed.

Open access

Jordyn Silverstein, Wesley Kidder, Susan Fisher, Thomas A Hope, Samantha Maisel, Dianna Ng, Jessica Van Ziffle, Chloe E Atreya and Katherine Van Loon

Background

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) during the peri-partum period is challenging to diagnose due to the overlapping symptoms of CRC and pregnancy. This is the first case series to investigate clinicopathologic, hormonal and molecular features of CRC diagnosed during the peri-partum period. We hypothesized that advanced presentations of CRC could possibly be mitigated by pregnancy-related hormonal factors.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of five women diagnosed with CRC during the peri-partum period and studied the clinical and molecular features of their cancer.

Results

All patients presented with stage IV CRC at diagnosis; three had primary tumors in the rectum and two had primary tumors in the sigmoid colon. The liver was the most common metastatic site (three of five women). Immunohistochemistry stains were negative for estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), and one tumor demonstrated low-level positivity for PR (1%). Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies from each case were tested with next-generation sequencing and found that all tumors were mismatch repair (MMR) proficient, and three harbored a KRAS mutation. Germline testing showed no predisposition to CRC; however, several somatic variants of undetermined significance (VUS) were identified.

Discussion

CRC in the peri-partum period poses significant risk factors for presentations with advanced disease due to diagnostic challenges. While our study provides no evidence that pathogenesis of CRC during pregnancy is driven by elevated estrogen and/or progesterone levels during pregnancy, additional putative etiologic factors, including placental growth factors, the immunosuppressive state of pregnancy and other physiologic processes during pregnancy, warrant future study.