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Open access

Katerina Saltiki, Elli Anagnostou, George Simeakis, Sofia Kouki, Anastasia Angelopoulou, Leda Sarika, Alexandra Papathoma and Maria Alevizaki

Introduction

High prevalence of RET p.Gly533Cys (c.1597G > T) has been found in familial MTC in Greece (exon 8 fMTC). We studied their origin and compared clinical characteristics with non-exon 8 fMTC.

Methods

102 fMTC (FMTC and MEN2A) patients (31.4% males) were followed for 2.9–37 years (median 6 years). Fifty-one carried the RET exon 8 mutation; the remaining were non-exon 8 fMTC (exons 10, 11, 13, 14). Pre-, post-operative calcitonin, disease extent at diagnosis and follow-up and families’ place of origin were recorded.

Results

Exon 8 fMTC were older (42.3 ± 13.3 vs 30.8 ± 17.8 years, P < 0.001), including index cases (P = 0.016). In index cases, the stage at diagnosis was more favorable in exon 8 fMTC compared to non-exon 8 fMTC (stage I and II: 65% vs 23.8%, stage III: 25% vs 57.1%, stage IV: 10% vs 19%, P = 0.025). More favorable outcome was noted in exon 8 fMTCs (remission: 72.5% vs 45.8%, stable disease: 27.5% vs 41.7%, progression: 0.0% vs 12.5%, P = 0.001). Exon 8 fMTC patients carried more frequently a second malignancy (25.5% vs 6.3%, P = 0.009); 69% of these were PTCs. Exon 8 fMTC patients were significantly older at diagnosis compared to non-exon 8 moderate-risk RET carriers and presented more favorable clinical outcome (remission: 72.5% vs 50%, stable disease: 27.5% vs 41.7%, progression: 0.0% vs 8.3%, P = 0.021). This difference remained when only index cases were analyzed. ‘Hot spots’ in the origin of exon 8 fMTCs families were recognized. No phenotype or outcome differences were found between the exon 8 families from the various regions.

Conclusions

In exon 8 fMTCs’ older age, favorable disease stage at diagnosis and favorable outcome suggest slow disease progression compared to non-exon 8 fMTC. Compared with moderate-risk RET mutation carriers, exon 8 fMTC patients have a more favorable clinical outcome. The higher prevalence of second malignancies, especially PTC, not previously reported, merits further investigation. Increased awareness for inherited disease is required for patients with apparently sporadic MTC originating from recognized ‘hot spots’, as the age at presentation is usually delayed.

Open access

Maria Giannakou, Katerina Saltiki, Emily Mantzou, Eleni Loukari, Georgios Philippou, Konstantinos Terzidis, Charalampos Stavrianos, Miltiades Kyprianou, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Kalliopi Karatzi and Maria Alevizaki

Objective

Increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether high oxidative stress is further influenced by obesity and dietary habits in euthyroid women with HT.

Methods

Two hundred eighteen consecutive euthyroid women with HT were studied and separated in two groups; 102 with thyroxine replacement and 114 without. For the evaluation of oxidative stress, total lipid peroxide levels in serum (TOS) were measured and recoded as ‘high TOS’ vs ‘medium/low TOS’. The type of food and consumption frequency were recorded. Two binary variables were considered; normal vs low fruit consumption and daily vs sporadic vegetable consumption.

Results

‘High TOS’ was more frequent in women under thyroxine replacement (31.4% vs 14.7%, OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.2). The prevalence of ‘high TOS’ was higher among overweight/obese women compared to women with normal BMI (30.4% vs 12.5%, OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5–6.4). Low fruit consumption was associated with increased ‘high TOS’ prevalence (30.6% vs 12.9%, OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4–6.2). Sporadic vegetable consumption was associated with increased ‘high TOS’ prevalence compared to daily consumption (29.9% vs 13.5%, OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3–5.7). The examined risk factors were independent and additive in their effect on TOS. At least three risk factors had to be concomitantly present for the likelihood of ‘high TOS’ to be significantly elevated.

Conclusions

Oxidative stress is increased in women with HT under thyroxine replacement. Nevertheless, normal BMI, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, all contribute in maintaining oxidative stress at low levels.