Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is a potentially sight-threatening and disfiguring, extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves’ disease. It often impairs patients’ quality of life, causing severe social and psychological sequelae. Intravenous glucocorticosteroids is currently the mainstay of therapy, but the efficacy is often underwhelming and recurrence rate is high. For many years, clinicians have been searching for new methods of treatment. Rituximab (RTX) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted against CD20 which is a surface antigen present on B cells. It is frequently used to treat non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, or various types of vasculitis. Numerous clinical trials employing RTX in the treatment of GO have shown promising results. RTX is currently considered to be a valid second-line treatment option in patients unresponsive to previous interventions or in disease reactivation. This review summarizes the available literature on this topic, including two largest, randomized, controlled studies. Potential benefits, as well as the limitations of RTX therapy, are discussed.
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Jakub Supronik, Małgorzata Szelachowska, Adam Kretowski, and Katarzyna Siewko
Agnieszka Adamska, Vitalii Ulychnyi, Katarzyna Siewko, Anna Popławska-Kita, Małgorzata Szelachowska, Marcin Adamski, Angelika Buczyńska, and Adam Jacek Krętowski
Cardiovascular risk factors could be present in mild adrenal autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS). However, the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors in MACS have not been established. The aim of the presseent study was to analyse the difference in cardiovascular risk factors in patients with MACS in comparison to those with non-functioning adrenal tumour (NFAT). A total of 295 patients with adrenal incidentaloma were included in this retrospective study. We divided our group into those who showed suppression in 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) (NFAT) (serum cortisol level ≤1.8 μg/dL) and those who did not show suppression in the DST (MACS) (serum concentration of cortisol > 1.8 μg/dL and ≤5 μg/dL). In the studied groups, we analysed the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular events. In our study, 18.9% of patients were defined as MACS. Importantly, T2DM was diagnosed in 41% of MACS vs 23% of NFAT (P < 0.01) and higher frequency of occurrence of hyperlipidaemia in NFAT (72.4%) vs MACS (53.6%) (P = 0.01) was observed. We did not observed differences in the frequency of obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, prediabetes, atrial fibrillation, stroke, ST and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and coronary angioplasty between patients with MACS and NFAT (all P > 0.05; respectively). In MACS, T2DM is more prevalent than in NFAT; hyperlipidaemia is more prevalent in NFAT. Accordingly, no differences were found in the incidence of obesity, hypertension, prediabetes, chronic kidney disease between studied groups as well as cardiovascular events.
Agnieszka Adamska, Paulina Tomczuk-Bobik, Anna Beata Popławska-Kita, Katarzyna Siewko, Angelika Buczyńska, Piotr Szumowski, Łukasz Żukowski, Janusz Myśliwiec, Monika Zbucka-Krętowska, Marcin Adamski, and Adam Jacek Krętowski
Treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) in women with differentiated thyroid cancer is associated with decreased serum concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH); however, other markers have not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of RAI treatment on antral follicle count (AFC) and the serum concentration of inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and AMH in women with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) treated with RAI. We examined 25 women at a median age of 33 years treated with a single dose of RAI. We divided the participants into women over (n = 11) and under 35 years of age (n = 14). Serum concentrations of inhibin B, FSH, AMH, and AFC were assessed at baseline and 1 year after RAI treatment. We found decreased AFC (P = 0.03), serum levels of AMH (P < 0.01), inhibin B (P = 0.03), but not FSH (P = 0.23), 1 year after RAI treatment in comparison to baseline in the whole group. When we compared serum levels of AMH in younger vs older women separately, we observed a significant reduction of this hormone’s serum level after RAI treatment in both groups (P < 0.01; P = 0.04, respectively). We concluded that RAI treatment significantly impacts the functional ovarian reserve in premenopausal women with PTC.