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Open access

R Walia, M Singla, K Vaiphei, S Kumar and A Bhansali


To study the clinical profile and the management of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD).

Design and setting

Retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital of North India.

Methods and patients

One hundred ninety-four patients of DSD registered in the Endocrine clinic of Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh between 1995 and 2014 were included.


One hundred and two patients (52.5%) had 46,XY DSD and seventy-four patients (38.1%) had 46,XX DSD. Sex chromosome DSD was identified in seven (3.6%) patients. Of 102 patients with 46,XY DSD, 32 (31.4%) had androgen insensitivity syndrome and 26 (25.5%) had androgen biosynthetic defect. Of the 74 patients with 46,XX DSD, 52 (70.27%) had congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and eight (10.8%) had ovotesticular DSD. Five patients with sex chromosome DSD had mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Excluding CAH, majority of the patients (90%) presented in the post-pubertal period. One-fourth of the patients with simple virilising CAH were reared as males because of strong male gender identity and behaviour and firm insistence by the parents. Corrective surgeries were performed in twenty patients (20%) of 46,XY DSD without hormonal evaluation prior to the presentation.


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is the most common DSD in the present series. Most common XY DSD is androgen insensitivity syndrome, while CAH is the most common XX DSD. Delayed diagnosis is a common feature, and corrective surgeries are performed without seeking a definite diagnosis.

Open access

Pinaki Dutta, Bhuvanesh Mahendran, K Shrinivas Reddy, Jasmina Ahluwalia, Kim Vaiphei, Rakesh K Kochhar, Prakamya Gupta, Anand Srinivasan, Mahesh Prakash, Kanchan Kumar Mukherjee, Viral N Shah, Girish Parthan and Anil Bhansali

The effectiveness and short-term safety of recombinant human GH (r-hGH) in acromegaly patients with GH deficiency (GHD) after treatment are not well established. The study includes ten subjects with acromegaly who had GHD treated with r-hGH for 6 months. Control groups consisted of ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy subjects and ten active acromegaly patients who were treatment naïve. Body composition, quality of life (QoL), muscle strength, lipid profile, and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in all subjects at baseline, and the same parameters were reassessed after 6 months of therapy with r-hGH in acromegaly with GHD. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the sella was performed in treated subjects. Optical colonoscopy was done and biopsies were taken from multiple sites for proliferation indices (Ki67). The median duration of GHD was 17.8 months and dose of r-hGH administered was 5.7±1.5 μg/kg per day. There was improvement in bone mineral content (P=0.01), bone mineral density (P=0.04), muscle strength (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P=0.003), high-density cholesterol (P<0.001), and QoL – score (P=0.005), and reduction in low-density cholesterol (P=0.003) and triglyceride (P=0.004) after treatment. There was no change in lean body mass, total body fat, hsCRP, lipoprotein (a), and fibrinogen levels. There was a modest increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (P=0.002), but it was lower compared with healthy controls and treatment naïve acromegalics (P=0.007). Six month-r-hGH therapy improves body composition, atherogenic lipid profile, QoL, and muscle strength in GHD patients who had acromegaly. Long-term prospective studies are needed to evaluate the effect of r-hGH therapy in these patients.