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Shufei Zang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Lei Shi Department of Neurology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jinying Zhao Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Min Yang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jun Liu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Heyuan Ding Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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The aim of our study was to explore the diagnostic value of prealbumin to fibrinogen ratio (PFR) for predicting prognosis with the optimal cut-off value in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) patients. A total of 568 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients were enrolled in this study. The values including Toronto clinical neuropathy score (TCNS), nerve conduction velocity (NCV), vibration perception threshold (VPT), blood cells count, biochemical parameters, fibrinogen and PFR were recorded. The patients were divided into tertiles based on admission PFR value. First, clinical parameters were compared among the groups. Secondly, a logistic regression and ROC analysis were performed as the statistical model. The percentage of DPN, TCNS and VPT were significantly higher in the lowest PFR tertile than in the middle PFR tertile and the highest PFR tertile (P < 0.01–0.001). NCV was significantly lower in lowest PFR tertile than in the middle PFR tertile and the highest PFR tertile (P < 0.01–0.001). The Spearman correlation analysis showed that PFR was negatively correlated with TCNS and VPT (P < 0.001), while PFR was positively correlated with median motor NCV (P < 0.001), peroneal motor NCV (P < 0.001), median sensory NCV (P < 0.001), and peroneal sensory NCV (P < 0.001). After adjusting these potentially related factors, PFR was independently related to DPN (P = 0.007). The area under ROC curve was 0.627. This study finds the first evidence to suggest PFR may be the key component associated with DPN in T2DM, while PFR might underlie the pathophysiologic features of DPN.

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Qian Yang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Wencai Ke Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Fifth People's Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Fanfan Pan Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xinmei Huang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jun Liu Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bingbing Zha Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Objective

Neutropenia is a complication of Graves' disease (GD), but there is currently no means by which to predict its occurrence. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for the development of neutropenia in untreated GD.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study. Between January 1, 2010, and July 31, 2020, 1000 patients with new-onset or relapsing GD without treatment were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: neutropenia group (neutrophil count < 2 × 109/L) and non-neutropenia group (neutrophil count ≥ 2 × 109/L). Clinical characteristics of subjects were compared between the two groups, and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine risk factors for neutropenia. To further explore the correlation of radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) with neutropenia, subjects were first classified according to quartile of 3 h RAIU and 24 h RAIU prior to logistic regression analysis.

Results

Of all patients recruited, 293 (29.6%) were diagnosed with neutropenia. Compared with non-neutropenic patients, those with neutropenia had a higher level of free thyroxine (FT4) (56.64 ± 31.80 vs 47.64 ± 39.64, P = 0.001), 3 h RAIU (55.64 ± 17.04 vs 49.80 ± 17.21, P < 0.001) and 24 h RAIU (67.38 ± 12.54 vs 64.38 ± 13.58, P < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that FT4, 3 h RAIU, 24 h RAIU, creatinine, and low-density lipoprotein were risk factors for development of neutropenia in GD. After adjusting for confounding factors of age, BMI, and sex, we determined that 3 h RAIU and 24 h RAIU (Model 1: OR = 1.021, 95% CI: 1.008–1.033, P = 0.001; Model 2: OR = 1.023, 95% CI: 1.007–1.039, P = 0.004), but not FT4, were associated with the development of neutropenia.

Conclusions

RAIU is associated with neutropenia in patients with untreated GD.

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Sharmin Jahan Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Jun Yang Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia

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Jinbo Hu Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

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Qifu Li Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

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Peter J Fuller Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia

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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension and is often underdiagnosed. This condition is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in comparison to age and blood pressure matched individuals with essential hypertension (EH). The diagnostic pathway for PA consists of three phases: screening, confirmatory testing, and subtyping. The lack of specificity in the screening step, which relies on the aldosterone to renin ratio, necessitates confirmatory testing. The Endocrine Society’s clinical practice guideline suggests four confirmatory tests, including the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), saline suppression test (SST), captopril challenge test (CCT), and oral sodium loading test (SLT). There is no universally accepted choice of confirmatory test, with practices varying among centers. The SST and FST are commonly used, but they can be resource-intensive, carry risks such as volume overload or hypokalemia, and are contraindicated in severe/uncontrolled HTN as well as in cardiac and renal impairment. In contrast, CCT is a safe and inexpensive alternative that can be performed in an outpatient setting and can be applied when other tests are contraindicated. Despite its simplicity and convenience, the variability in captopril dose, testing posture, and diagnostic threshold limit its widespread use. This narrative review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the CCT across different populations, addresses controversies in its usage, and proposes recommendations for its use in the diagnosis of PA. Furthermore, suggestions for future research aimed at promoting the wider utilization of the CCT as a simpler, safer, and more cost-effective diagnostic test are discussed.

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Leqi He Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xiaoying Li Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Zaoping Chen Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Wei Wang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Kai Wang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xinmei Huang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Qian Yang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Wencai Ke Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jun Liu Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bingbing Zha Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Objective

To explore the relationship between estradiol (E2) and thyroid function during the second trimester of pregnancy and the effect of E2 on sodium iodide transporter (NIS) expression in cultured thyroid cells.

Materials and methods

We analyzed relationships between E2 and thyroid function in 196 pregnant women during the second trimester. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed between E2 and thyroid function. The human thyroid Nthy-ori3-1 cells were cultured in different E2 concentrations, and the mRNA levels of NIS, estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and ER-β were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Their protein levels were assessed by western blot.

Results

E2 was positively correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and negatively correlated with free thyroxine (FT4) (P < 0.05). When we corrected for age, BMI, alanine aminotransferase, and serum creatinine, E2 was still negatively correlated with FT4 (P < 0.5) during the second trimester. In Nthy-ori3-1 cells treated with 10 nM E2, NIS and ER-β mRNA levels were significantly reduced, while ER-α mRNA level was not altered (P > 0.5). Moreover, 10 nM E2 significantly decreased protein levels of ER-β, phosphorylated versions of protein kinase A (p-PKA), phosphorylated versions of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB), and NIS, while treatment with the ER-β inhibitor restored the expression of p-PKA, p-CREB, and NIS (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

High concentration of E2 has a negative correlation with FT4. High concentration of E2 can inhibit the NIS expression through the ER-β-mediated pathway, which may cause thyroid hormone fluctuations during pregnancy.

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Xuechao Jiang Scientific Research Center, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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Yonghui Wang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xiaoying Li Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Leqi He Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Qian Yang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Wei Wang Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jun Liu Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bingbing Zha Department of Endocrinology, Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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B lymphocytes are the source of autoantibodies against the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in Graves’ disease (GD). Characterization of autoimmune B-cell expression profiles might enable a better understanding of GD pathogenesis. To reveal this, the expression levels of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs (genes) in purified B cells from patients with newly diagnosed GD and healthy individuals were compared using microarrays, which elucidated 604 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs) and 410 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). GO and pathway analyses revealed that the DEGs are mainly involved in immune response. A protein–protein interaction network presented experimentally validated interactions among the DEGs. Two independent algorithms were used to identify the DE-lncRNAs that regulate the DEGs. Functional annotation of the deregulated lncRNA–mRNA pairs identified 14 pairs with mRNAs involved in cell proliferation. The lncRNAs TCONS_00022357-XLOC_010919 and n335641 were predicted to regulate TCL1 family AKT coactivator A (TCL1A), and the lncRNA n337845 was predicted to regulate SH2 domain containing 1A (SH2D1A). TCL1A and SH2D1A are highly involved in B-cell proliferation. The differential expression of both genes was validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles of B cells from patients with GD indicated that the lncRNA–mRNA pairs n335641–TCL1A, TCONS_00022357-XLOC_010919–TCL1A, and n337845–SH2D1A may participate in GD pathogenesis by modulating B-cell proliferation and survival. Therefore, the identified lncRNA and mRNA may represent novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GD.

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Cheng Han Ng Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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Yip Han Chin Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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Marcus Hon Qin Tan Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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Jun Xuan Ng Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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Samantha Peiling Yang Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore

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Jolene Jiayu Kiew Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore

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Chin Meng Khoo Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore

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Purpose:

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common condition affecting people of all ages and is mainly treated with parathyroidectomy. Cinacalcet has been widely used in secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but the use of cinacalcet in PHPT is less clear.

Methods:

Searches were conducted in Medline and Embase for cinacalcet use in PHPT from induction to 10 April 2020. Articles and conferences abstracts describing the use of cinacalcet for PHPT in prospective or retrospective cohorts and randomized controlled trials restricted to English language only. We initially identified 1301 abstracts. Each article went extraction by two blinded authors on a structured proforma. Continuous outcomes were pooled with weight mean difference (WMD). Quality of included articles was assessed with Newcastle Ottwa Scale and Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0.

Results:

Twenty-eight articles were included. Normalization rate of serum Ca levels was reported at 90% (CI: 0.82 to 0.96). Serum levels of Ca and PTH levels were significantly reduced (Ca, WMD: 1.647, CI: −1.922 to −1.371; PTH, WMD: −31.218, CI: −41.671 to −20.765) and phosphate levels significantly increased (WMD: 0.498, CI: 0.400 to 0.596) after cinacalcet therapy. The higher the baseline Ca levels, the greater Ca reduction with cinacalcet treatment. Age and gender did not modify the effect of cinacalcet on serum Ca levels.

Conclusion:

The results from the meta-analysis support the use of cinacalcet as an alternative or bridging therapy to treat hypercalcemia in people with PHPT.

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Richard W Carroll Endocrine, Diabetes, and Research Centre, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand

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Brian Corley Endocrine, Diabetes, and Research Centre, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand

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Joe Feltham Department of Radiology, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand

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Patricia Whitfield Endocrine, Diabetes, and Research Centre, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand

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William Park University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand

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Rowena Howard Diabetes and Endocrinology Service, Hutt Hospital, New Zealand

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Melissa Yssel Department of Biochemistry & Endocrinology, Awanui Labs, New Zealand

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Ian Phillips Department of Biochemistry, Awanui Labs, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Simon Harper Department of Surgery & Anaesethesia, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand
Department of General Surgery, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand

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Jun Yang Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

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Objective

The assessment of primary aldosteronism incorporates adrenal vein sampling (AVS) to lateralize aldosterone excess. Current adrenal vein sampling protocols rely on concurrent cortisol measurements to assess successful cannulation and lateralization and may be inaccurate in the setting of autonomous cortisol secretion. We aimed to compare the measurement of plasma cortisol and metanephrine concentrations to assess cannulation and lateralization during AVS.

Design

This is a diagnostic accuracy study in a tertiary referral endocrinology department.

Methods

Forty-one consecutive patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism undergoing AVS (49 procedures) were included. None had cortisol autonomy. The use of plasma metanephrine-based ratios were compared with standard cortisol-based ratios to assess cannulation and lateralization during ACTH-stimulated AVS.

Results

There was strong agreement between a cortisol selectivity index (SI) ≥5.0 and an adrenal vein (AV) to peripheral vein (PV) plasma metanephrine ratio (AVmet–PVmet) of ≥12.0 to indicate successful cannulation of the AV (n = 117, sensitivity 98%, specificity 89%, positive predictive value (PPV) 95%, negative predictive value (NPV) 94%). There was strong agreement between the standard cortisol-based SI and an AV plasma metanephrine-to-normetanephrine ratio (AVmet–AVnormet) of ≥2.0 to indicate successful cannulation (n = 117, sensitivity 93%, specificity 86%, PPV 94%, NPV 84%). There was strong agreement between the cortisol- or metanephrine-derived lateralization index (LI) > 4.0 for determining lateralization (n = 26, sensitivity 100%, specificity 94.1%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 100%).

Conclusions

Ratios incorporating plasma metanephrines provide comparable outcomes to standard cortisol-based measurements for interpretation of AVS. Further studies are required to assess the use of metanephrine-derived ratios in the context of confirmed cortisol autonomy.

Significance statement

Primary aldosteronism is a common cause of secondary hypertension, and adrenal vein sampling remains the gold standard test to assess lateralization. Cortisol-derived ratios to assess cannulation and lateralization may be affected by concurrent cortisol dysfunction, which is not uncommon in the context of primary aldosteronism. Our study showed comparable outcomes when using accepted cortisol-derived or metanephrine-derived ratios to determine cannulation and lateralization during adrenal vein sampling. Further research is required to validate these findings and to assess the use of metanephrine-derived ratios in the context of confirmed concurrent cortisol dysfunction.

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Peng Fan Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Chao-Xia Lu McKusick-Zhang Center for Genetic Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Di Zhang Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Kun-Qi Yang Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Pei-Pei Lu Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Ying Zhang Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Xu Meng Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Su-Fang Hao Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Fang Luo Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Ya-Xin Liu Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Hui-Min Zhang Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Lei Song Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Jun Cai Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Xue Zhang McKusick-Zhang Center for Genetic Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Xian-Liang Zhou Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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Liddle syndrome (LS), a monogenetic autosomal dominant disorder, is mainly characterized by early-onset hypertension and hypokalemia. Clinically, misdiagnosis or missing diagnosis is common, since clinical phenotypes of LS are variable and nonspecific. We report a family with misdiagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA), but identify as LS with a pathogenic frameshift mutation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β subunit. DNA samples were collected from a 32-year-old proband and 31 other relatives in the same family. A designed panel including 41 genes associated with monogenic hypertension was screened using next-generation sequencing. The best candidate disease-causing variants were verified by Sanger sequencing. Genetic analysis of the proband revealed a novel frameshift mutation c.1838delC (p.Pro613Glnfs*675) in exon 13 of SCNN1B. This heterozygous mutation involved the deletion of a cytosine from a string of three consecutive cytosines located at codons 612 to 613 and resulted in deletion of the crucial PY motif and elongation of the β-ENaC protein. The identical mutation was also found in 12 affected family members. Amiloride was effective in alleviating LS for patients. There were no SCNN1A or SCNN1G mutations in this family. Our study emphasizes the importance of considering LS in the differential diagnosis of early-onset hypertension. The identification of a novel frameshift mutation of SCNN1B enriches the genetic spectrum of LS and has allowed treatment of this affected family to prevent severe complications.

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