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Hong Wang, Jie Cao, Jian-bin Su, Xueqin Wang, Dong-mei Zhang, and Xiao-hua Wang

Background: Antithrombin 3 (AT3) is a physiological inhibitor of thrombin, and serum AT3 activity was found to be decreased at the status of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was presented with an increased risk of thrombotic complications at the background of impaired insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin sensitivity indices and serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with T2D who consented to participate in the study at the Endocrinology Department of Affiliated 2 Hospital of Nantong University from January 2015 to June 2018. All patients received serum AT3 activity test and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basal and systemic insulin sensitivity were assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index (ISIMatsuda), respectively, from the OGTT. And other relevant clinical data were also collected.

Results: Total 1612 patients with T2D were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 58.67±13.09 years and a median diabetes duration of 6 years (interquartile range, 1–10 years). Across ascending quartiles of serum AT3, HOMA-IR progressively decreased, while ISIMatsuda progressively increased (all p for trend <0.001). Moreover, serum AT3 was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r= –0.189, p<0.001) and positively correlated with ISIMatsuda (r=0.221, p<0.001). After adjusting for other metabolic risk factors, hemostatic parameters and glucose-lowering therapies by multivariate liner regression analysis, HOMA-IR (β= −0.185, t= −5.960, p<0.001) and ISIMatsuda (β= 0.197, t=6.632, p<0.001) remained independently associated with the serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D, respectively.

Conclusions: Reduced basal and systemic insulin sensitivity are associated with decreased serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.