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Open access

Sarah Byberg, Jesper Futtrup, Mikkel Andreassen and Jesper Krogh


Recent large cohort studies suggest an association between high plasma prolactin and cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this systematic review was to systematically assess the effect of reducing prolactin with dopamine agonist on established cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prolactinomas.


Bibliographical search was done until February 2019 searching the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, WHO and LILAC. Eligible studies had to include participants with verified prolactinomas where metabolic variables were assessed before and after at least 2 weeks treatment with dopamine agonists.


Baseline data and outcomes were independently collected by two investigators. The study was registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42016046525).


Fourteen observational studies enrolling 387 participants were included. The pooled standardized mean difference of the primary outcome revealed a reduction of BMI and weight of −0.21 (95% CI −0.37 to −0.05; P = 0.01; I 2 = 71%), after treatment. Subgroup analysis suggested that the reduction of weight was primarily driven by studies with high prolactin levels at baseline (P = 0.04). Secondary outcomes suggested a small decrease in waist circumference, a small-to-moderate decrease in triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, HOMA-IR, HbA1c and hsCRP, and a moderate decrease in LDL, total cholesterol and insulin.


This systematic review suggests a reduction of weight as well as an improved lipid profile and glucose tolerance after treatment with dopamine agonist in patients with prolactinomas. These data are based on low-quality evidence.

Open access

Matilde Calanchini, Michael Tadman, Jesper Krogh, Andrea Fabbri, Ashley Grossman and Brian Shine


The 24-h urinary output of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is used to monitor disease progression and treatment responses of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Several conditions are required for 5-HIAA assay, involving urine collection/preservation and food/drug restrictions.


To evaluate the correlation between 5-HIAA concentration in a spot urine sample and the output in a 24-h urine collection, and whether spot urine specimens can replace 24-h collection.


Patients with NENs or symptoms suggestive of NENs were asked to provide a separate spot urine at the end of the 24-h urine collection for 5-HIAA assessment. The upper reference limit for 24-h urinary 5-HIAA was 40 µmol/24 h. 5-HIAA measurements in spot urine samples were corrected for variation in urine flow rate by expressing results as a ratio to creatinine concentration.


We included 136 paired urinary samples for 5-HIAA assessment from 111 patients (100 NENs). The correlation between 5-HIAA values measured in 24-h and spot urines was r = +0.863 (P < 0.001) and r = +0.840 (P < 0.001) including only NEN patients. Using the 24-h urinary 5-HIAA as reference method, the AUC on ROC analysis for spot urinary 5-HIAA was 0.948 (95% CI, 0.914–0.983; P < 0.001), attaining a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 95% using 5.3 mol/mmol as cut-off for the spot urine. The AUC among NEN patients alone was 0.945 (95% CI, 0.904–0.987; P < 0.001).


The ratio of 5-HIAA to creatinine in a spot urine could replace the measurement of 5-HIAA output in a 24-h urine collection, especially for follow-up of patients with known elevated 5-HIAA levels.

Open access

Matilde Calanchini, Michael Tadman, Jesper Krogh, Andrea Fabbri, Ashley Grossman and Brian Shine