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  • Author: Irfan Vardarli x
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Irfan Vardarli Department of Medicine I, Klinikum Vest, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Recklinghausen, Academic Teaching Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Recklinghausen, Germany

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Manuel Weber Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Frank Weidemann Department of Medicine I, Klinikum Vest, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Recklinghausen, Academic Teaching Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Recklinghausen, Germany

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Dagmar Führer Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry – Division of Laboratory Research; Endocrine Tumor Center at WTZ/Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Ken Herrmann Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

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Objective

The usefulness of routine calcitonin measurement for early detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in patients with nodular thyroid disease (NTD) has been investigated in various studies. Recently, a Cochrane review has been published on this issue, but a meta-analysis is lacking yet. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis.

Methods

We performed an electronic search using PubMed/Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of routine calcitonin measurement for detecting MTC in patients with NDT were selected. Statistics were performed by using Stata software, risk of bias was assessed using Review Manager version 5.3.

Results

Seventeen studies, involving 74,407 patients were included in the study. Meta-analysis, using the bivariate random effects model and the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve revealed the following pooled estimates: sensitivity 0.99 (95% CI, 0.81–1.00), specificity 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99), positive likelihood ratio (L+) 72.4 (95% CI, 32.3–162.1), and negative likelihood ratio (L−) 0.01 (95% CI, 0.00–0.23). Meta-regression analysis showed that the threshold of basal calcitonin is an independent factor, but in particular performing stimulation test is not an independent factor.

Conclusions

We showed that routine basal serum calcitonin measurement in the management of patients with thyroid nodules is valuable for the detection of MTC. However, the published cut-off values should be considered and, if applicable, the patients monitored in a wait-and-see strategy by experienced physicians to avoid overtreatment.

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Irfan Vardarli 5th Medical Department, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Susanne Tan Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Clinical Chemistry – Division of Laboratory Research Endocrine Tumor Center at WTZ/Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Rainer Görges Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Bernhard K Krämer 5th Medical Department, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Ken Herrmann Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Christoph Brochhausen Institue of Pathology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

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Objective

The management of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (ITN) is still a challenge. To evaluate the performance of commercial molecular tests for ITN, we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis.

Methods

We performed an electronic search using PubMed/Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of Afirma gene expression classifier (GEC), Afirma gene sequencing classifier (GSC), ThyroSeq v2 (TSv2), or ThyroSeq v3 (TSv3) in patients with ITN (only Bethesda category III or IV) were selected; Statistical analyses were performed by using Stata.

Results

Seventy-one samples (GEC, n = 38; GSC, n = 16; TSv2, n = 9; TSv3, n = 8) in 53 studies, involving 6490 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) with ITN cytology with molecular diagnostics (GEC, GSC, TSv2, or TSv3), were included in the study. The meta-analysis showed the following pooled estimates: sensitivity 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94–0.97), specificity 0.35 (0.28–0.43), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 1.5 (1.3–1.6), and negative likelihood ratio (LR−) 0.13 (0.09–0.19), with the best performance for TSv3 (area under the ROC curve 0.95 (0.93–0.96), followed by TSv2 (0.90 (0.87–0.92)), GSC (0.86 (0.82–0.88)), and GEC (0.82 (0.78–0.85)); the best rule-out property was observed for GSC (LR−, 0.07 (0.02–0.19)), followed by TSv3 (0.11 (0.05–0.24)) and GEC (0.16 (0.10–0.28), and the best rule-in was observed for TSv2 (LR+, 2,9 (1.4–4.6)), followed by GSC (1.9 (1.6–2.4)). A meta-regression analysis revealed that study design, Bethesda category, and type of molecular test were independent factors.

Conclusion

We showed that in patients with ITN, TSv3 has the best molecular diagnostic performance, followed by TSv2, GSC, and GEC. As regards rule-out malignancy, GSC, and rule-in, TSV2 is superior to other tests.

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