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Open access

Zhiwei Zhang, Hui Zhao, and Aixia Wang

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has a high incidence rate among pregnant women. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of plant-derived oleuropein in attenuating inflammatory and oxidative stress of GDM.

Methods: Oleuropein was administered to GDM mice at the doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg/day. Body weight, blood glucose, insulin and hepatic glycogen levels were recorded. To evaluate the effect of oleuropein in reducing oxidative stress, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the hepatic oxidative stress markers. The inflammation levels of GDM mice were evaluated by measuring serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α by ELISA, and mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway was assessed by Western blot. Gestational outcome was analyzed through comparing litter size and birth weight.

Results: Oleuropein attenuated the elevated body weight of GDM mice, and efficiently reduced blood glucose, insulin and hepatic glycogen levels. Oxidative stress and inflammation were alleviated by oleuropein treatment. The AMPK signaling was activated by oleuropein in GDM mice. Gestational outcome was markedly improved by oleuropein treatment.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that oleuropein is effective in alleviating symptoms of GDM and improving gestational outcome in the mouse model. This effect is achieved by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation, which is mediated by the activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

Open access

Chenghao Piao, Xiaojie Wang, Shiqiao Peng, Xinyu Guo, Hui Zhao, Li He, Yan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Kewen Zhu, and Yiwei Wang

Objective

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by glucose intolerance during gestation. It is associated with a series of maternal and foetal complications. Interleukin (IL)-34 is a recently discovered pro-inflammatory cytokine that functions as a ligand for colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R). The contribution of IL-34 in the development of multiple chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases has been recently discovered. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether IL-34 participates in the pathogenesis of GDM.

Method

A total of 120 women were enrolled in this study, which included 60 GDM patients and age- and sex-matched healthy pregnant women. The expression of IL-34 in serum, cord blood and placental tissues was analysed by ELISA and Western blot assays. The association between IL-34 levels and clinical features was also studied. We additionally evaluated the effect of recombinant mouse IL-34 (rmIL-34) on apoptosis and pancreatic β cell function.

Results

We found that IL-34 expression is highly increased in serum, cord blood and placental tissues in patients with GDM. In addition, there was a positive association between serum IL-34 and insulin resistance and glucose concentrations. Our data also revealed that IL-34 contributes to the apoptosis of pancreatic β cells in GDM caused by CSF-1R. Furthermore, functional studies found that IL-34 inhibited pancreatic β cell function and cell viability, while CSF-1R inhibitor blocked this effect.

Conclusion

IL-34 plays a crucial role in the development of GDM by targeting CSF-1R, insulin production and β cell function.

Open access

Ju-shuang Li, Tao Wang, Jing-jing Zuo, Cheng-nan Guo, Fang Peng, Shu-zhen Zhao, Hui-hui Li, Xiang-qing Hou, Yuan Lan, Ya-ping Wei, Chao Zheng, and Guang-yun Mao

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and leading cause of visual impairment in adults worldwide, is suggested to be linked to abnormal lipid metabolism. The present study aims to comprehensively investigate the relationship between n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and DR. This was a propensity score matching based case–control study, including 69 pairs of DR patients and type 2 diabetic patients without DR with mean age of 56.7 ± 9.2 years. Five n-6 PUFAs were determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Principle component regression (PCR) and multiple conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the association of DR risk with n-6 PUFAs depending on independent training and testing sets, respectively. According to locally weighted regression model, we observed obvious negative correlation between levels of five n-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, eicosadienoic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and arachidonicacid) and DR. Based on multiple PCR model, we also observed significant negative association between the five n-6 PUFAs and DR with adjusted OR (95% CI) as 0.62 (0.43,0.87). When being evaluated depending on the testing set, the association was still existed, and PCR model had excellent classification performance, in which area under the curve (AUC) was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.99). In addition, the model also had valid calibration with a non-significant Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square of 9.44 (P = 0.307) in the testing set. n-6 PUFAs were inversely associated with the presence of DR, and the principle component could be potential indicator in distinguishing DR from other T2D patients.