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Bliss Anderson and Daniel L Morganstein

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are now widely used in the treatment of multiple cancers. The major toxicities of these treatments are termed immune related adverse events and endocrine dysfunction is common. Thyroid disease, hypopituitarism and a form of diabetes resembling type 1 diabetes are now all well described, with different patterns emerging with different checkpoint inhibitors.

We review the presentation and management of the common endocrine immune related adverse events, and discuss a number of recent advances in the understanding of these important, potentially life threatening toxicities. We also discuss some remaining dilemmas in management.