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  • Author: Cecilia Camacho-Hübner x
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Open access

Johan Verhelst, Anders F Mattsson, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner, Anton Luger and Roger Abs


Adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AO-GHD) is associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS).


To determine the effect of GH replacement on the prevalence of MetS in AO-GHD and to study the impact of MetS on the incidence of cardiovascular events during GH replacement.

Patients and methods

1449 AO-GHD patients (males 48.9%; mean age 48.9 ± 12.8 year) were retrieved from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database). The prevalence of MetS (using International Diabetes Federation criteria) and its components were calculated at baseline and after one year of GH replacement. The relative risk to develop cardiovascular events according to the presence of MetS at baseline was assessed in another group of 3282 patients after prolonged GH replacement.


The prevalence of MetS was 46.9% at baseline and 48.2% after one year of GH replacement (P = NS). The percentage of patients with abnormal waist circumference decreased significantly (80.3 vs 77.4%; P < 0.001), but impaired glucose metabolism (17.1 vs 23.3%; P < 0.001) increased and HDL cholesterol (48.2 vs 50.9%; P = 0.011) decreased. Switch from MetS to NoMS (18.5%) and from NoMS to MetS (18.8%) occurred. All patients showed a significant and comparable amelioration of quality of life. During seven years of GH replacement patients with MetS had a 66% higher risk (P = 0.0016) to develop a new coronary disease compared to NoMS.


MetS prevalence remains unchanged in AO-GHD during one year of GH replacement whereas its components are differentially affected. Besides GH replacement, consequent pharmacotherapy of all risk factors and endorsement of lifestyle intervention appears to be of uttermost importance together with early GHD diagnosis to prevent cardiovascular disease during prolonged treatment.

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Martin Carlsson, Dionisios Chrysis and Cecilia Camacho-Hübner


The precision of adult height prediction by bone age determination in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is unknown.


The near adult height (NAH) of patients with IGHD in the KIGS database was compared retrospectively to adult height prediction calculated by the Bayley–Pinneau (BP) prediction based on bone age by Greulich–Pyle (GP) in 315 children and based on the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2) method in 121 children. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age at GH start, age at puberty, mean dose and years of of GH treatment, and maximum GH peak in stimulation test were calculated.


The mean underestimation of adult height based on the BP method was at baseline 4.1 ± 0.7 cm in girls and 6.1 ± 0.6 cm in boys, at 1 year of GH treatment 2.5 ± 0.5 cm in girls and 0.9 ± 0.4 cm in boys, while at last bone age determination adult height was overestimated in mean by 0.4 ± 0.6 cm in girls and 3.8 ± 0.5 cm in boys. The mean underestimation of adult height based on the TW2 method was at baseline 5.3 ± 2.0 cm in girls and 7.9 ± 0.8 cm in boys, at 1 year of GH treatment adult height was overestimated in girls 0.1 ± 0.6 cm in girls and underestimated 4.1 ± 0.4 cm in boys, while at last bone age determination adult height was overestimated in mean by 3.1 ± 1.5 cm in girls and 3.6 ± 0.8 cm in boys.


Height prediction by BP and TW2 at onset of GH treatment underestimates adult height in prepubertal IGHD children, while in mean 6 years after onset of GH treatment these prediction methods overestimated adult height.